TROJAN HORSES AND SECRET SPIES WHO BREAK INDIA
By CHANAKYA MACHIVELIC JI
APPETIZER / Introduction:
RULE number 1: whatever the west ascertains as “rock», question it’s hardness and accept it only after thorough investigation.
RULE number 2: whoever the west promotes as “great” and cover him with NOBEL PRIZE, BEWARE! Do research on his past if he is truly worthy of all those praises because everything the west will do, it is for their “business” and never for a “selfless cause»; it is in their mind-set and I would say in their gene. Why? Because in the West, a few people (some bankers, industrialists, politicians and capitalists of all sorts) have succeeded in overpowering the majority; a mere 10% of them determine the fate of the rest of THE SILENT MASSES. IT is just a closed knit community of wealthy oligarchy who have already tried their arms on their own citizens and then perfected those arms to such an extent that they do it in a «pavlovien” manner on the rest of the planet with a predilection for India, the potential and cultural clout of which they feel threatened. Their formula : media power + fashionable and spectacular events to promote their ideas like Nobel Prize + money clout + financing any future President whatever may be his party + collaborating with their Missionaries and sold-out politicians and NGO cum stooges to spread American culture depriving Indians completely of their “indianity” + selling all their goods to Indians who have lost their “indianity” Their goal is just commercial and JESUS is just one among ten means to attain that commercial goal !
I AM GOING TO PUT MYSELF IN THE BODY OF A WESTERN AND RECOUNT A FASCINATING HISTORY OF THE WEST’S MURDEROUS ADVENTURES across Time and Space.
We had already some appetizers in my above introduction, let us go to the main course:
Now that we have put all Red Indians in segregated zones as animals, now that we have made all black and creole inhabitants of SOUTH AMERICA a docile people by continuously keeping them brainwashed so that whatever they do, they do as their masters told them to do, we think we are already masters of the minds of people of South America and Africa with some exceptions. NOW THAT WE , WESTERN IMPERIALISTS HAVE MADE AFRICA ALMOST PREY LIKE US AND GIVE US FULL LIBERTY TO EXPLOIT, WITH NO CONCERN FOR THEIR ENVIRONMENT, THEIR GEOLOGICAL OR OCEAN RESOURCES AND CHINA AND INDIA HELP US TO PRODUCE MORE TO SELL TO THE REST OF THE PLANET, WE ALMOST CONTROL THE WHOLE WORLD.
BUT, SOME LEVEL OF OUR CONTROL OVER CHINA AND INDIA MAY VARY:
CHINA EMULATES OUR CAPITALIST SYSTEM MARVELLOUSLY WELL ALL BY THEIR OWN WILL , KILLING THEIR TRADITIONAL WAY OF LIVING, THUS PASSING ON THEIR OWN WILL, A SUICIDE ROPE AROUND THEIR NECK,
BUT, ALTHOUGH ECONOMICALLY THEY HAVE BECOME UNWILLINGLY OUR SLAVE, THEY AT LEAST CONSERVE A DISTINCTIVE LINGUISTIC DIFFERENCE, INDIA HAS NOT EVEN THIS LANGUAGE BARRIER FOR US TO INVADE THEIR PSYCHE. THANKS TO OUR BRITISH ANCESTORS WHO MADE THEM EXTERNALLY INDIAN BUT INTERNALLY SO BRITISH. IN THIS SCENARIO, WHICH PLACE RUSSIA FITS IN? RUSSIA IS NOT TOTALLY FOLLOWING OUR ECONOMIC MODEL EVEN THOUGH BILLIONAIRES FROM THEIR COUNTRY IS ON THE INCREASE (A GOOD NEWS FOR US. WE HOPE WITH ALL FRENCH LUXURY GOING IN MOSCOW TO MAKE THEM GREEDY LIKE US FOR USELESS GOODS, THEY MAY FOLLOW OUR MODEL IN THE LONG TERM AND JOIN US BECOMING A SATELLITE LIKE CHINA OR JAPAN ) , THEY ARE STILL POSING MANY PROBLEMS FOR THE WESTERN TO APPREHEND AND COMPREHEND, AT LEAST IN THE SHORT TERM. THEIR LINGUISTIC AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS MAKE THEM A NON REACHABLE ZONE FOR THE WESTERN IMPERIALIST EAGLE AND IT’s SNIFFING DOGS.
COMING TO INDIA, EVEN THOUGH INDIANS SPEAK ENGLISH BUT YET THEY ARE DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND. WE THINK INDIA HAS A GREAT CULTURAL HERITAGE THANKS TO HER ANCIENT CIVILISATION THAT CAN COMPLICATE IN OUR PROSELYTING MISSION AND CAN EVEN POSE A THREAT FOR OUR MONOTHEISTIC RELIGION IN THE LONG RUN BY PROPOSING A CHOICE TO HUMANITY OF A BETTER ALTERNATIVE. BY THE BY, HERE IS THE TRUTH ABOUT OUR IDEA OF RELIGION: WE THINK RELIGION SHOULD BE A POLITICAL INSTRUMENT TO ATTAIN MATERIAL GOALS, THAT ‘S ALL. NO SENTIMENTS LIKE INDIANS WHO PREY GANGA RIVER.
BY THE BY, WE ACCUSE THEM OF IDOLATRY AND LAUGH AT THEIR FOLLY OF PANTHEISTIC RELIGION. (WE KNOW THAT HINDUS DON’T PREY DIRECTLY TO A STONE STATUE BUT THROUGH THAT STATUE , THEY MEDITATE UPON THE UNIVERSAL FORMLESS ENERGY WHICH EXPRESSES ITSELF THROUGH ALL CREATION AND FORMS. BUT, LET US PRETEND WE DO NOT KNOW ALL THIS SO THAT WE CAN CONTINUE TO MAKE FUN OF THEM AND HARVEST SOULS FOR OUR MIDDLE-EAST GOD CHRIST EXPORTED TO COLD SNOW CLAD PAGAN EUROPE AND RUSSIA FROM A HOT DESERT AS A GIFT! IN WHOSE NAME, WE COMMITTED GENOCIDE IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA TO AFRICA VIA INDIA. (HERE IS THE TRUE IMAGE OF JESUS thanks to CNN:
WE SELLERS OF GOODS TO THE WORLD ARE AFRAID THAT IF AT ALL PEOPLE IN THE WEST AND THE EAST EMBRACE SANATANA DHARMA, THEY MAY BE MORE CAREFUL ABOUT ECOLOGICAL CONCERNS AS HINDUS RESPECT EARTH AS MOTHER.
THEIR SINCERE AFFECTION FOR ALL LIVING BEINGS INCLUDING ANIMALS PREVENT OUR MEAT INDUSTRY TO EXPAND AND THEIR SINCERE PAGAN CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT PREVENT OUR MINING AND ENERGY INDUSTRY TO CONTINUE WITH THEIR MINDLESS EXPLOITATION. THEIR ATTACHMENT TO A MORE TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE PREVENTS US TO SELL THEM GMO FOODS AND OTHER JUNK FOODS AND DIABETIC COCA AND MAKE THEM OBESE LIKE US.
THEIR ATTACHMENT TO A MORE SINCERE AND SOLID FAMILY STRUCTURE PREVENT US TO SELL THEM ALL OUR USELESS MAKE-UP AND OTHER HIGH-HEELS ETC SO THAT THEIR WOMEN MAY ALSO BECOME LIKE OUR LADIES AFRAID OF BEING NATURAL AND LESS FAMILY CARING AND MORE PRONE TO DELEGATE THEIR KITCHEN WORK TO CARELESS AND CYNIC INDUSTRIALISTS !
WHEN INDIANS HAD FINISHED EATING ALL OUR JUNK FOODS, WE ARE READY TO GIVE THEM OUR MEDICINE.
ALAS! INDIA HAS YOGA AND AYURVEDIC MEDICAL SYSTEM WHICH BASED ON HOLISTIC AND HERBAL REMEDIES, CAN POSE A THREAT TO OUR MEDICAL SYSTEM IN THE LONG RUN.
SO, WE ARE PUSHED TO COPY AND PATENT WHATEVER THEIR CIVILISATION HAD PRODUCED BY SAYING THAT AS WE MADE SOME ALTERATIONS, THAT MAKES THAT YOGA DIFFERENT OR THEIR AYURVEDA, SIDDHA MEDICINE COMPLETELY AMERICAN. WE ARE ALREADY PATENTING WHATEVER WE FIND INTERESTING IN THEIR PLANTS AND HERBS AND OTHER INTERESTING NATURAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF ASIA AND AFRICA SO THAT THEY WILL HAVE TO PAY TO THEIR OWN NATURAL REMEDIES MADE FROM PLANTS GROWING ONLY IN THEIR LANDS.
SO, THEIR ANCIENT CULTURE AND THEIR WAY OF LIVING IS OUR ENEMY AND WE WILL BREAK THAT BY PROSELYTING THEM WITH our imported DESERT MAN WHO IS DEPICTED AS “BLOND WITH BLUE EYES” WRONGLY so as to flatter our ego of WHITE PEOPLE.
TO BEGIN, WE CAN JUST BREAK INDIA IN TO SMALL REGIONS SO THAT IT MAY NEVER BECOME A COUNTER-POWER WHERE SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ARE PRODUCED MORE EFFECTIVELY THAN IN OUR OWN WESTERN COUNTRIES.
FOR US RELIGION IS JUST AN INSTRUMENT TO ATTAIN OUR COMMERCIAL AND MATERIAL DESIRES. We are cold and calculated and these two qualities define our CIA.
BUT, WE ARE CONFUSED TO SEE THAT FOR INDIA, IT IS NOT SO. THEY PUT DESIRES FOR MATERIALS IN THE BACKYARD.
MOREOVER, WE WOULD LIKE INDIA TO FOLLOW OUR MONOTHEISTIC APPROACH TO RELIGION BECAUSE, THAT MAY FACILITATE TO UNDERSTAND THEIR MINDS.
TO BE ABLE TO SELL TO A COUNTRY, WE SHOULD BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THEIR DEEP PSYCHE. IF THEY ARE TOO CONSCIOUS THAT MATERIAL DESIRE ALONE IS NOT THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF LIFE, THEN THAT DIVERGENT BEHAVIOUR CAN NOT FACILITATE A BETTER PENETRATION OF THEIR MARKETS. IF YOU DON’T GIVE IMPORTANCE TO SUPERFLUOUS DESIRES, WE CAN SELL NOTHING TO YOU! We would do all kinds of tricks so that you copy our consumerism of useless scents and cigarettes!
SO, WE WESTERN POWERS, FEEL IT IS BETTER TO BREAK INDIA AND CONTROL THEM SO THAT THEY HAVE NO ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM TO PROPOSE EITHER TO OUR CAPITALISM OR TO OUR RELIGION.
HOW DO WE DO ALL THIS SUBVERSIVE ACTS: GIVE A FORMER PRESIDENT’S WIFE (HILARY CLINTON) THE POWER TO MANAGE A TRUST IN WHICH ALL MNCs WILL POUR MONEY. MAINTAIN THE NETWORK OF THE BIG NEXUS BETWEEN CIA -INDUSTRIALISTS- NGOs- CHURCH-POLITICIANS WORK IN TANDEM TO EXECUTE THE GRAND DESTINY OF THE WESTERN WORLD : TO RULE THE WORLD. THANKS TO CLINTON-LIKE PEOPLE. Our missionaries had done a great job and now we have Indian Christians helping us with proselytism: we now can send our boys infiltrate even Hindu Parties like B.J.P.
HERE IS THE FORMULA we WESTERN POWER, UNDECLARED AND SECRET PREDATOR AND ENEMY OF INDIAN CIVILISATION AND CULTURAL HERITAGE, TO DIVIDE AND BREAK INDIA …UPDATED ON 9th JUNE OF2014. AFTER MODIJI WAS ELECTED WITH ABSOLUTE MAJORITY. TROJAN HORSES AND SECRET SPIES WHO BREAK INDIA WILL HAVE A DIFFICULT TIME WITH MODI NOW THAT HE IS GIVEN FULL POWER BY THE INDIAN VOTERS, NEVERTHELESS, WE SHOULD CONTINUE TO BE VIGILANT.
READING THE BELOW LIST OF METHODS THAT OUR ENEMIES EMPLOY TO BREAK US MAY BE USEFUL TO KEEP THAT VIGILANCE LAMP ALWAYS LIT, ALIVE AND BRIGHT.
Below is a chart showing that consumers have an illusion of choice but the majority of brands belong to few companies:
1) CONTROL INDIAN MIND BY MACAULAY TYPE OF EDUCATION in SCHOOLS RUN BY MISSIONARIES FROM USA.
By education, media, audio-visual and cinematographic propaganda, people’s mind can also be easily colonized. So, the formula of our enemies is:
Make them cook, eat, taste, dress, dance, speak, sing, smoke and drink like us;
Make them enjoy and like and dislike the same things we do;
Make the architects of INDIA think adopt a “pensée unique” approach for building construction in terms of cement and sand and never make them go back to those noble NATURAL materials that resist naturally sun rays of the tropics like bamboo or other agricultural by-products that Indian ancestors once used so wisely to alleviate the hot sun rays’ bad effects and more adapted to their tropical climate. Make them our silent followers so that they may continue to siphon sand from all their sea shores that is copying our mindset; “take always from earth continuously but never give back, because our greed is fathomless as ocean.”
Make them think and dream like us even though they may not look like us and the colour of their skin may be black or yellow, if they think and live like us, we can happily go on selling them what we produce, that is the only thing important and for that, we can go to any extent.
In the process of colonizing minds of the target country’s people, if we can take their gold, silver , titanium, thorium, rare metals, petrol, gas or anything their land may contain under it’s surface, well, we will invent any pretext to bomb or steal that wealth in stealth.
Unfortunately, powerful country like RUSSIA’s rich gas remains out of our greedy bear claws’ reach but how to seize it is still a problem for us. We also have more difficulty to penetrate and spy them, they are linguistically and culturally so different like those Chinese! Happily, thanks to English colonisation, Indians at least are easy to manage. Let us hope so.
Above all, let us plunder India’s ancient sacred culture and eat and digest their priceless value system and beliefs so that we may boast that all that culture is ours’ and we can accuse them by saying that it is they who stole that cultural heritage from us when, in reality, it is we who stole from them !
Make them believe that their culture and religion is inferior in quality, baseless, superstitious, foolish and what not, so that they may abandon their religion and convert to ours’.
Make them think very low of whatever their ancestors had produced so that they will abandon all the wisdom from their ancestors and embrace western way of living as a fanatic consumerist who can no more think of a world without hyper markets covering hectares of surface.
Go on taking from the earth whatever it may contain under it’s surface without ever giving back anything in return. Grateful indeed these greedy guys are to the Mother Nature!
MAKE INDIAN FARMERS QUIT THEIR VILLAGES AND INDUCE THEM TO SEARCH FOR JOBS IN INDUSTRIES IN URBAN CITIES.
WE like the word “concentration” and apply it to our production sites that produce and our storerooms that store them and hypermarkets that sell them to urban cities with dense population of readily available clients for our goods. This is our virtuous circle that can be a “vicious» one for others.
(This is my humble request to our Prime Minister. Please MODIJI sir, please don’t listen to World Bank which wants our farmers quit villages and overcrowd our urban cities so that they may become a ready-made clients for their industrial products. when farmers leave their job of cultivating of India, when their land is bought by real estate companies, food production will fall and will not feed our population, so we will have to import industrially produced grains by American or European farming corporates there by becoming beggars with a begging bowl for our daily food, that will create a dependence worse than when we depended upon the British colonial masters for our livelihood.)
MAKE them build urban gigantic cities and create concentration of people in those cities paving way for an easy market penetration of western products.
2) CONTROL INDIAN MIND BY PAID USA MEDIA WORKING IN INDIA LIKE INNOCENT COMPANIES SPREADING CULTURE AND ENTERTAINMENT LIKE RUPERT MURDOCH STAR TV VIJAY TV AND OTHER PAID MEDIA LIKE SUN TV + CONTROL CULTURE, VALUES and HABITS BY MNC IN NEXUS WITH CHURCH.
3) CONTROL STANDARDS OF MORALITY WITH HUMAN RIGHTS, NOBEL AND OTHER PRICE GIVING TRUSTS FIXING THE STANDARD OF WHAT IS WORTHY OF GETTING REWARDED AND WHAT IS NOT WORTHY, ALWAYS ACCORDING TO WESTERN STANDARDS, SPREAD REVOLUTIONS AND SPRING UPRISING IN ARAB AND ASIA BY SPREADING SECRETLY CIA FUNDED NGOS.
N.B : I am very happy to learn this great man Shri Kailash Satyarthi had been bestowed upon with the Nobel price . But, I feel that western people have too much blood of innocent North and South American Indians and Africans in their hands. They invented slavery in it’s most cruel form and unleashed injustice in all their erstwhile colonies including India, They don’t deserve to give prizes in the name of peace India is better placed to dispense this price; Even though Sweden is a neutral country and had never been directly implicated in wars , this prize is showcased as “WESTERN” . We need to create a GANDHIJI prize and that should become the global benchmark for evaluating someone’s service for peace; We are the nation who invented non-violent methods to win a war and the western people have no merit to hijack a global peace cause.
4) CONTROL MONEY WITH INTERNATIONAL BANKS LIKE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/06/the-imfs-emphasis-on-macroeconomic.html) AND BY LOANS WITH DRACONIAN CONDITIONS FAVORING AMERICAN FORTUNE 500 PEOPLE …FIRST LEND THEM AND THEN BEND THEM TO YOUR DESIRE. FORCE AND THREATEN THEM TO OPEN INDIA’s MARKET MAKING INDIANS JOBLESS WHILE ENRICHING THOSE WESTERN INVESTORS WHOSE PREDATION ON EMERGING MARKETS KEEP THEIR OVEN HOT. Privatization and opening Indian market for the foreign MNC vultures such as WALMART AND CARREFOUR WERE THE DEMANDS OF THIS DIRTY BANK. On the pressure of the World Bank, Indian corrupt politicians are pressuring the common man who retorts by rejecting them in elections.
WHY THE FRENCH HOTEL GROUP ACCOR CAN GO ON BUILDING HOTELS IN INDIA BUT NOT EVEN TATA IS ABLE TO BUY ASSETS IN FRANCE?
WHY FRENCH COMPANIES LIKE ALCATEL, ALSTOM, AREVA, DASSAULT,EADS, EDF, GAZ DE FRANCE AND THALES RUSH TO BUY SPACE IN DELHI WHILE AN INDIAN LIKE LAKSHMI MITAL WHEN HE WANTED TO ENTER THE FRENCH IRON AND STEEL SECTOR BY BUYING ARCELOR MITAL WAS PUT TO INDIAN BASHING BY FRENCH SOCIETY IN GENERAL AND FRENCH MEDIA IN PARTICULAR. THE RACIST REMARKS AGAINST LAKSHMI MITAL SHOULD NOT BE TOLERATED AND EVERY INDIAN SHOULD MAKE SURE THAT FRENCH COMPANIES GET THE SAME TREATMENT HERE AND WE SHOULD MAKE THEM QUIT IF THEY DON’ T OPEN THEIR MARKET AS FREELY AS WE DO TO THEM. Reciprocity should be the general rule.
5) CONTROL BLACK MONEY TAPS WITH KICKBACKS BY “GOVT TO GOVT” SALES OF ARMS BY EXCHANGING COMMISSIONS IN DOLLARS BETWEEN HEAD OF COUNTRIES WHO SELL AND BUY SUCH ARMS.
INDIAN CONGRESS PARTY’S HEAD IS MRS SONIA GANDHI, AN ITALIAN LADY WHO ENTERED THE GANDHI FAMILY BY MARRYING THE SON OF INDIRA GANDHI, THE LATE MR RAJIV GANDHI. SHE RULED INDIA BY NAMING A PUPPET CALLED MANMOHAN SINGH AS PRIME MINISTER, WHO SAID “AMEN” TO HER TO ANYTHING SHE SAID AND WANTED. WHAT SHE DID IS JUST FOR 10 YEARS WAS FULFILLING THE EVANGELISTS AGENDA. SHE HAS BECOME ONE OF THE RICHEST POLITICIAN IN THE WORLD BY STEALING INDIAN TAXPAYERS’ MONEY. SHE SYSTEMATICALLY GOT KICKBACKS FOR ALL SALES OF ARMAMENTS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
CONTROL WORLD TRADE BY AMERICAN DOMINATED WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION BY HAND TWISTING AND FORCING BANANA REPUBLIC MINISTERS WHO LIKE TO GET SOME KICKBACKS.
6) CONTROL THROUGH CIA AND DIPLOMATIC CHANNELS PEOPLE IN HIGH POLITICAL POSITIONS. (In 1700, ROBERT CLIVE USED INDIANS (SEPOYS) to control INDIANS.
From 2004 till MAY 2014, AN ITALIAN USED INDIANS (CONVERTED INDIAN CHRISTIANS AND PRIESTS) TO DIVIDE AND PROSELYTIZE INDIANS AND DESTROY THE VERY CULTURAL FOUNDATION OF INDIA. (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/06/a-hindu-argues-circles-around.html)
BEFORE, THE BRITISH WANTED ONLY TO CONTROL INDIA POLITICALLY AND COMMERCIALLY BUT THE ITALIAN LADY WANTED TO USE MONEY TO BUY THEIR SOULS AND BURN THEM IN HELL. SHE USED THE SAME FORMULA: ENSLAVE INDIANS CULTURALLY AND SPIRITUALLY BY EMPLOYING INDIAN PRIESTS AND BISHOPS.
Just Google FORD FOUNDATION IN INDIA. You will be stunned to learn that the USA is funding a new political party and promoting it with “dollar force” by buying massive Media support for making the American Party in Indian dress a success. Instead of wasting their time to buy out Indian politicians, they now fund people who create new INDIAN POLITICAL PARTIES as they funded NGOS run by AAM ADMI PARTY leader KEJERWAL so as to indirectly help him create this American remote controlled Indian Party. Imagine if such a party can win elections and become big enough to govern India. That will make INDIA the worst banana republic on earth! (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/06/foreign-aided-ngos-are-actively.html).
7) CONTROL DEMOGRAPHY BY FORCED MASS CONVERSIONS TO CREATE CAPTIVE CLIENTS TO THE USA MNCs AND BUY DIRECTLY PEOPLE IN INDIAN BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE AS IN THE CASE OF NAMBI NARAYANAN , A TRUE PATRIOT WHOSE DESIRE TO COMPETE WITH USA by MAKING GSLV ROCKET COSTED HIM DEARLY. THANKS TO RUSSIA, INDIA COULD MAKE PROGRESS IN CRYOGENIC ROCKET IN SPITE OF AMERICAN SANCTIONS). BY the by, western Imperialists send mercenaries of Indian origin to kill their own scientists who may pose a threat to American and European scientific monopoly in rocket or nuclear technology.
8) CONTROL POLITICIANS BY LURING THEM with SEXY JOURNALISTS UNDER THE PRETEXT OF INTERVIEWING THEM AND BLACKMAILING THEM AFTERWARDS.
9) MAKE INDIANS ADOPT OUR AMERICAN NAMES LIKE DAVID , JOHN OR JOSEPH ETC This is “CULTURAL RAPE : Control by penetrating Indian cinema world to persuade famous ACTORS to change their Hindu names to Christian names (a cursory investigation by a journalist may reveal fantastic scoops )..It may seem petty but by drop by drop the poison may pollute the whole society. It is a way of getting the access to the collective consciousness of Indians who seeing actors with names like David may finally lift their guard and accept those names in the long run and may even give them to their children. (I call this colonizing the collective consciousness). Why they want to colonize something invisible inside you? Because, the more you accept them, the more they can harvest “souls” for their JESUS, the middle-east man whose looks are like that of a north European. IT IS THIS THEY WANT: ACCEPTABILITY. Their long term recolonization of India should first begin by making a white alien Vatican culture familiar to you. Acceptability is the key to your heart and purse .https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6LQkWwQrZU
Go to this link on acceptability: (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/02/acceptability-is-key-to-your-heart-and.html).
10) MAKE INDIANS ACCEPT OUR CHURCH IN THEIR CITIES : This is ” GEOGRAPHICAL RAPE” ; Control the geographical relief of a city or a village by inserting the church in that milieu , this is also similar to the above process ; only instead of a name getting access to the collective OK of a society , it is a place which gets that collective OK because of it’s strategic situation being in the middle of a busy place where people pass constantly from four directions and they will finish by accepting a church “unconsciously” as a thing of their internal memory of the geography of their town…this is another kind of “colonizing” the internal memory of a person without his permission. So, it is a kind of rape and subduing the mind of a person when he is the least alert.
+ European media only insists on rapes in India which is statistically a ridiculous thing when you compare with the 1 billion population in India where as in Europe and in the USA, it is many times superior to the numbers of Indian crimes! But, they want to stop Santana Dharma getting stronger and challenging conversion by CHRISTIANITY. So, they try to link Hinduism with all this “rape mentality” that shows that woman is not respected in Hindu culture so “come to my religion”.
11) Control universities and centers of education by hiding behind the noble cause of education the mission to convert innocent students to Christianity, dispense false doctorates in Hinduism whose mission would be to publish false information on Hinduism and especially by proposing courses in media management and technology that may be useful to reinforce the control. THIS SEPOY PLANTING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES ALSO IS A WELL OILED MECHANISM THAT HAS TRAITORS FOR DOING IGNOMINIOUS JOB OF MUDSLINGING ON HINDU LEADERS, WATCH OUT THIS SEPOY WHOSE NAME IS MEENA DHANDA,,WHO SEEMS TO POSE A SERIOUS THREAT TO HINDUISM , They are criminals whose main MISSION is “intellectual contamination” of people against Hinduism and it’s supporters and followers, People like MEENA DHANDA are recruited for “Hindu bashing” and their mission is to contaminate intellectually the scientific community with essays to discredit Hindu leaders. We should also understand that in Universities world over, professors are recruited to this anti-India subversive activities and they form a big international network working in unison and tandem with AAP leader ARAVIND KEJRIVAL, Her colleagues are those who succeeded in setting up Trojan horses in INDIA in the name of “AAP party». She praises only those AAP traitors waiting to be tried for treason who got elected in PUNJAB. SHE IS A “Sepoy” PROFESSOR IN UK..Now it is clear, AAP is a criminal international network working in unison and in tandem to destroy Hinduism. (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/06/will-govt-dismantle-large-complex-anti.html)
For example, The New York Times often ask people who hate India like PANKAJ MISHRA to write hateful things on India so that they can not be taxed as racist. If you can’t be overtly racist and negative on India, the next best thing to do is to get a disgruntled Indian intellectual, someone cut off from his roots, to do the job. No one can then accuse you of racism.
12). Control by issuing an identity bio-metric card (happily MR NANDAN NILEKANI who worked in this bio-metric project, lost his election) for every Indian so that everything about his personal data may be readily available for CIA; If at all any Indian thinks ill of Uncle Sam in any way, his freedom of expression may be curtailed via internal powerful politicians on USA payroll or direct commando forces. At the end of the day, that could be helpful to demographically determine where Christian population is needed to increase so as to reap not only souls but also electoral gains.
13). Give money to crooked “scientists” and ask them to deliver bulshit that is “bogus studies” and make it sensational in all media to make it sound like a stupendous “discovery” of the century to demonize a respectable civilization like “Indus Valley Civilization”.
14). If some Indian philosopher like TIROUVALUVAR seems to be outstandingly intelligent then say Saint Thomas or some x saint passed by CHENNAI where he was living and inspired TITOUVALUVAR to write all the poems so brilliantly applauded by the public.. Same thing as above for MS SUBULAKSHMI a great Carnatic singer was photographed with Pope and was taken to Vatican by a local Bishop to confuse innocent minds. In that photo, poor MS SUBULAKSHMI innocently posed beside Pope as a goat beside a Tiger… That photo was meant to show to future Tamil converts that even their elitist Tamil Carnatic singer is compatible with POPE culture!.
15) SEND ARMIES OF MISSIONARIES TO THE TRIBAL AREAS AND EXPLOITING THE INNOCENCE OF TRIBALS’ hospitality, convert them and make them fight against themselves … (The northeast region has become so infected by Christian militants and conversions that they want to secede from the rest of India and become their own Christian country, against the wishes of those who want to remain a part of the Vedic or indigenous cultures.)
16) WE WANTED TO STOP MODI FROM BECOMING PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA BUT ALAS ALL OUR EFFORTS HAVE FAILED BECAUSE INDIANS MASSIVELY ELECTED HIM AND BY ELECTING HIM, THEY SUPPORT HIS LOVE FOR HINDUISM. HERE IS WHAT WE TRIED TO DO, without any success, SO THAT PEOPLE MAY NOT ELECT HIM:
CONDEMN MODI officially by US PARLIAMENT for false accusation of genocide of Muslims by Hindus under his government in GUJARAT;
As the writer Zahir Janmohamed narrates in a brilliant part-confessional and part expose in The New York Times, he, as a senior staffer with Minnesota’s United States Representative Keith Ellison — then the only Muslim member of the US Congress — worked with Raju Rajagopal, closely associated with members of the radical Forum of Indian Leftists, and John Prabhudoss, an evangelical Christian activist, to prevail upon two members of the US Congress to introduce a House resolution condemning Modi in March 2005.
In the USA , a core group comprising Rajagopal, Prabhudoss (according to sepoy strategy , use converted Indian Christians like RAJAGOPAL or PRABHUDOSS etc to convert other INDIANS who are Hindus ) and a few others — along with their organisations interchangeably calling themselves Friends of South Asia, Coalition Against Genocide, Coalition Against Communalism and the like — countered efforts of Hindu Americans to offer modifications to California sixth grade textbooks that caricatured and misrepresented Hindu beliefs.
17) The USCIRF, which was created by evangelical members of Congress with the initial intent of securing Christians from persecution and which has no Hindu members, adopted a searing anti-Modi position that continues today. USCIRF Vice Chair Katrina Lantos Swett zealously proselytises against Modi at numerous fora, and even said that she hoped that her criticisms of Modi would serve as a ‘bit of information that will help them (Indian voters) as they go through that electoral process.’ (http://panindiahindu.blogspot.com/2014/05/it-was-as-if-script-of-crime-was.html).
18) In ancient times, India witnessed British using Indian soldiers against Indians. Now, Christian militants use Indian and Asian and even African pastors to convert Indians. This technique to control Indians by Indians is what I call “sepoy strategy”.
SPY INDIA FROM THE SKIES:
Integrate technology and armament to consolidate political power by overpowering countries as if to tell them, “your geography is naked to us and we know all your strengths and weaknesses so that we can win over you in any war, be careful” …From 1966 until its last mission in 1989, the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird flew thousands of missions around the globe, photographing military installations from India to Egypt including China and the Arctic Circle to North Korea. If USA can do it to other countries, why others could not do the same to them? So, don’t be the first to pollute minds with “conquering or fear mind-set” the two are two faces of the same coin. Don’t live in eternal fear of being attacked…Live according to DHARMA.
19) INDUSTRIES IN THE US BECOMING BIGGER THAN THEIR GOVERNMENT; MNCs had become slowly parallel governments controlling democratically elected government. When they grow in size with a budget higher than that of the nation in which they are implanted, than it is high time to regulate them and contain their corrupt practices. Better, the government should enact laws to determine the size of MNCs that will allow just to be profitable without the power to corrupt. Big is not always synonymous to beautiful. The more the economic crisis grips Industrialists, the more their LOBBYING gets intense. Since the World War II, defiance manufacturing is the biggest manufacturing industry of the US and its biggest employer. GE is one of the flagship companies in its stable. However, these war factories thrive on the sadistic creation of anarchy in nations particularly far from the shores of the US.
In India, GE is engaged in dubious activities that are blatantly anti-India by supporting financially Medias whose shareholders are illegal Christian missionaries with sole activity is Hindu mudslinging.
GE’s involvement with NDTV, a news media with Christian missionary’s capital, is particularly shocking and a gross infringement on the sovereignty of India; a grave, shocking and criminal act deserving severe retaliation and a thorough probe by our intelligence agencies.
GE has been severely indicted by the Dispute Resolution Panel (DRP) of the Income Tax department for having made shady and dubious investments to the tune of USD 150 million or Rs. 642.54 crores at 2008 – 09 valuations into an NDTV subsidiary. This entire amount has been declared as a “sham transaction” by the DRP.
Why would GE an AMERICAN COMPANY had freehand with congress help to make investments in an INDIAN national news channel like NDTV which people think is 100% Indian while the truth is by way of dubious and illegal investments, USA’s INDUSTRIAL GIANT G.E HAD TOOK 100% CONTROL OF AN INDIAN NATIONAL MEDIA …WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE BEHIND THIS SUBVERSIVE ACT ? Was it for illegal bribes? Was it to buy politicians? Was it to influence public opinion?
Democracy in danger: the rise of illegitimate authority
Transnational corporations have an unbalanced influence on global and domestic politics, and are dangerous to democracy. Ignore them at your own peril.
What is legitimate government? Since the late 18th century, the Western consensus has required at a minimum popular sovereignty, free and fair elections and legally binding citizens’ rights.
Differences of degree have always existed and the battle to extend democratic freedoms is never-ending and knows no frontiers. People now overthrow tyrants in unexpected places; millions of Egyptians have lately reminded us that the right to oust an elected leader who neither keeps his promises nor honours his obligations is also part of the democratic canon.
Legitimacy demands above all the consent of the governed. This in turn means that the governed must have the capacity to reject illegitimate authority. But what if they are unable to detect and identify illegitimate rule in the first place? What if the real governing bodies are shadowy entities, known mostly to specialists and which carefully refrain from publicising their activities? What is the citizens’ recourse?
Knowledge is the first requirement and the media are of little help in this department. How many journalists let alone ordinary people have ever heard of the International Accounting Standards Board? How boring! Who wants to read about accounting? Invented as a simple advisory group by the European Union which needed to deal with many disparate accounting systems in its member states, the IASB brought together executives or retirees of the Big Four transnational accounting firms. It became official in 2005 and since then, dozens of countries including Australia have decided to follow its rules.
Why should we care? Simply because the world will never get rid of tax havens so long as the IASB is able to stonewall “country-by-country reporting” – the only system that could force transnational corporations (TNCs) to pay their taxes where their real economic activity takes place. Thanks to “transfer pricing” and various other legal dodges, the TNCs are causing governments to forfeit untold tax revenues that could improve the lot of their peoples. And so long as the top accounting firms make the rules by proxy, they will continue to do so.
Over 3,000 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) are now in force and most include “investor-to-state dispute resolution” provisions. These allow investors – by definition TNCs – to sue governments if they believe that their present or even “expected” profits are harmed by any government measure. Australia wisely announced in 2011 that it would no longer include such clauses in future trade and investment treaties; too late, however, to avoid being sued by Philip Morris for its anti-smoking legislation.
Negotiations began last month on the most important free trade agreement ever drafted. The TTIP, or Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, will make the rules for fully half the world economy’s GDP. US-European annual goods and services trade amounts to some trillion and a half dollars, but there is little to negotiate on direct barriers such as tariffs – these average a mere 3 per cent. The goals are instead to eliminate BBBs or “behind borders barriers”, including regulations and public services, and to obtain total freedom for TNC investors, particularly the investor-to-state clause.
Extra-judicial arbitration panels are increasingly replacing national courts and they can strike down consumer, public health and environmental protection laws as well as obtain mega-million dollar awards for TNCs whose turnover is often larger than the total GDP of the country being sued.
But just as is the case for the thousands of BITs, it’s governments that negotiate the TTIP, no? What’s illegitimate about that? Simply put, TNCs headquartered on both sides of the Atlantic have since the mid-1990s been deciding all the nuts-and-bolts issues in elaborate detail, sector by sector. Their venue was the Transatlantic Business Dialogue, newly morphed as the Transatlantic Economic Council. It describes its job as “reducing regulations to empower the private sector” and calls itself a “political body”. Their website says proudly that this is the first time “the private sector [has] held an official role in determining EU/US public policy”.
In 2012, governments met in Rio de Janeiro for the United Nations “Rio + 20” environmental conference. The representative of the International Chamber of Commerce was applauded when she announced on “Business Day” that “we are part of the largest business delegation ever to attend a UN conference” and told her audience that “business needs to take the lead and we are taking the lead.” The TNCs are now demanding a formal role in UN climate negotiations.
It isn’t just their size, enormous wealth and assets that make the TNCs dangerous to democracy. As the late Professor Ted Wheelwright often pointed out, it’s also their concentration, their capacity to influence, indeed infiltrate governments and their ability to defend their interests as a genuine international social class.
Interchangeable, international, individually wealthy, nomadic, with common attributes, speaking a common language and sharing a common ideology, I call the people who increasingly run not just business but government the Davos Class. Citizens who value democracy ignore them at their peril.
Originally published at The Drum.
About the author Susan George
Susan George is one of TNI’s most renowned fellows for her long-term and ground-breaking analysis of global issues. “How to win the Class War – The Lugano Report II” is the newest of her sixteen widely translated books. She describes her work in a cogent way that has come to define TNI: “The job of the responsible social scientist is first to uncover these forces [of wealth, power and control], to write about them clearly, without jargon… and finally..to take an advocacy position in favour of the disadvantaged, the underdogs, the victims of injustice.”
20) SEND ARMIES OF NGOS TO POLLUTE THE TARGET COUNTRY THAT YOU THINK IS NOT BENDING LOW TO YOUR FEET AND POLISH YOUR SHOES:
“Hillary Clinton likes to operate through NGOs, which are given funding through indirect channels, and which target individuals and countries seen as less than respectful to her views on foreign and domestic policy in the target countries,” a retired US official now based in Atlanta said. He claimed that “rather than US NGOs, (the former) Secretary of State Clinton favoured operating through organisations based in the Netherlands, Denmark and the Scandinavian countries, especially Norway” as these were outside the radar of big power politics. These NGOs were active in the agitation against the Russian nuclear power plant at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu, with “funding coming mainly from a religious organisation based in Europe that has close links with France”.
Incidentally, French companies (especially AREVA) are in direct competition with Russian rivals in seeking to expand the market for nuclear reactors in India. The senior official, now on a visit to India, claimed that “your (i.e. the Manmohan Singh) government has full details of the religious organisation involved in funding the Kudankulam protests, but is keeping this secret as the organisation has high-level backers” in the UPA.
These present and retired officials claimed that “during the tenure in office of Secretary Clinton, several expert teams in the guise of NGOs were sent to Gujarat to try and find mass graves”. The purpose was to then take the matter to the Office of the UN Commissioner of Human Rights in Geneva as an example of genocide. “In 2011, some bones were discovered in a Gujarat field by one of the search teams and there was much excitement, but these were later found to be buffalo bones”, an official said. The official added that “no evidence whatsoever of mass graves was uncovered in Gujarat despite six years of clandestine searching for them” by undercover experts posing as representatives of NGOs. He added that “five politicians, three from the state and two in Delhi, assisted the search teams, but the information given by them proved unproductive”.
( THANKS for the inputs of 20th point : http://defence.pk/threads/hillary-clintons-get-modi-campaign-usdangerous-south-asian-interests.316766/ )
22) Modern warfare is unleashed on enemy countries by buying their media in the name of globalisation and commercial purpose but working as TROJAN HORSES inside that country to make propaganda to attain western evangelists ‘ Hindu soul harvesting objectives. HERE IS THE EXCERPT FROM A RESEARCH PAPER ON OWNERSHIP OF INDIAN MEDIA;
In 2001, India had 45,974 newspapers, including 5,364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages. The largest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596), Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,215), Tamil (2,119), Kannada (1,816), Malayalam (1,505) and Telugu (1,289). The Hindi daily press has a circulation of over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies.
There are several major publishing groups in India, the most prominent among them being the Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, The Hindu group, the Anandabazar Patrika Group, the Eenadu Group, the Malayalam Manorama Group, the Mathrubhumi group, the Sahara group, the Bhaskar group, and the Dainik Jagran group.
India has more than 40 domestic news agencies. The Express News Service, the Press Trust of India, and the United News of India are among the major news agencies. Let us see the ownership of different media agencies.
NDTV: A very popular TV news media is funded by Gospels of Charity in Spain supports Communism. Recently it has developed a soft corner towards Pakistan because Pakistan President has allowed only this channel to be aired in Pakistan. Indian CEO Prannoy Roy is co-brother of Prakash Karat, General Secretary of Communist party of India.
India Today which used to be the only national weekly who supported BJP is now bought by NDTV!! Since then the tone has changed drastically and turned into Hindu bashing.
CNN-IBN: This is 100 percent funded by Southern Baptist Church with its branches in all over the world with HQ in US. The Church annually allocates $800 million for promotion of its channel. Its Indian head is Rajdeep Sardesai and his wife Sagarika Ghosh.
Times group list: Times Of India, Mumbai – Mirror, Nav-Bharth Times, Stardust, Femina, Vijaya Times, Vijaya Karnataka, Times now (24- hour news channel) and many more. Times Group is owned by Bennet & Coleman. “World Christian Council” does 80 percent of the Funding, and an Englishman and an Italian equally share balance 20 percent. The Italian Robertio Mindo is a close relative of Sonia Gandhi.
Star TV: It is run by an Australian, who is supported by St. Peters Pontificial Church Melbourne.
Hindustan Times: Owned by Birla Group, but hands have changed since Shobana Bhartiya took over. Presently it is working in Collobration with Times Group.
The Hindu: English daily, started over 125 years has been recently taken over by Joshua Society, Berne, Switzerland. Indian Express: Divided into two groups.
The Indian Express and new Indian Express (southern edition). Acts Ministries has major stake in the Indian Express and later is still with the Indian counterpart.
Eeenadu: Still to date controlled by an Indian named Ramoji Rao. Ramoji Rao is connected with film industry and owns a huge studio in Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Jyothi: TheJihadiparty of Hyderabad known as MIM along with a Congress Minister has purchased this Telgu daily very recently.
The Statesman: It is controlled by Communist Party of India. Kairal TV: It is controlled by Communist party of India (Marxist)
Mathrubhoomi: Leaders ofJihadiLeague and Communist leaders have major investment.
Asian Age and Deccan Chronicle: Is owned by a Saudi Arabian Company with its chief Editor M.J. Akbar.
The ownership explains the control of media in India by foreigners. The result is obvious.
“INDIA’s problems appear unsolvable because we have failed to understand ourselves in our own language, on our own terms. We can learn from the West. We can emulate aspects of their well-functioning systems of local government and law and marry it with dharma society to create a better world. Japan has dharma and well-functioning law, resulting in one of the lowest homicide rates in the world. But even to learn from others we must study them on our own terms. But how can we do that when our entire academic social disciplines exist on borrowed terms and borrowed theories? ” (excerpts from an essay by Sankrant).
Fear binds western societies with it’s corollary “policing and lawmaking”. Fear binds Western societies while “free will from a dharma-abiding mind makes an Indian obey social codes.
DHARMA had always been the foundation, the structure and the cement of our Bharat permeating each thought and act of our people where people respect social norms out of their free will and deep respect for the “Atman” inside more than appeal to their primitive instincts of fear and obedience which are two faces of the same coin.. INDIA is driven by Dharma conciousness and with a “name sake” policing and lawmaking , we have less crime rate than in the fear-based Europe or the USA.
Not everything can be attributed to American CIA or any other external sources but also to our “slave” mental attitude going after copying anything western without first asking the question : “how this alien technique of architecture, agriculture, horticulture, manufacturing , road and infrastructure building, which were the consequences of a different specific conditions , can be adapted to our specific geographical, topographical, geological, climatic local particularities so that we make the best choice for a sustainable and a pleasant environment ?” go to the below link if you have time to learn how we have become sosie to our erstwhile masters :
With English “Mc Caulay” cum MISSIONARY education network, we are moulded since childhood in the same matrix as European children. So, MOID should dismantle slowly that type of education and replace with our unique vedic system of GURUKAL with so many qualities if at all one day the western came to know that system, the whole America would copy it (they are intelligent enough to know which is good from India and which is not and make quick and better choices. They have already adopted YOGA and Meditation in their daily or weekend routine). Now, when that time will come, India would be weaker than the Americans in mastering their own inherited vedic knowledge.
When I speak of western imperialists, I speak of only those “bourgeoisie class” of the USA and the Europe instigating globalisation tailor made to their greed not those poor innocent silent masses of America or Europe. Those millions of Americans and Europeans are carefully denied vital informations like whenever they give donations to a Christian Trust, it is mischievously used to destroy a traditional culture by planting and thrusting their churches and converting people by financial and other allurements and cunning “divide and rule” strategy. Thus their donations are so badly used that they cause more suffering than that which the worst poverty can afflict them.
Bagavat Gita advises us not to do anything against the dharmic principle that is “swyadharma” (to know more about the unique concept of dharma , consult this link :
and being detached from the changing time and destiny of the external world and search for inner stability.
USA and EUROPE should reclaim their pagan roots more respectful of man and nature. Their original roots lie in “dharmic” culture.
Whatever money you spend, ( that you could have spent for the welfare of the poor in your country) on spying and manipulating other countries because you want to rule over others, that money is not well spent but all your efforts and dollars to enslave others is useless and going to gutters and septic tank. Why? First, the answer to this question is in the above statement itself.
Whenever and whatever you do, if your action’s motive or hidden goal or ulterior desire is not in accordance with the universal principle that is a sort of universal natural law of ethics or as Indians call so beautifully “DHARMA”, then your action will sow “karmic seeds” that will boomerang to you. This law is the foundation of our survival on earth and in BAGAVAT GITA which is now a familiar text to Americans thanks to “Hare Rama Hare Krishna», it is well explained how and why we should abide by this natural law to attain true peace and joy without any superficial “painting” or “make-up”
Also, it is useless to run BIG organisations with taxpayers’ money to think day and night of the following subject “How to topple governments and subvert societies? » instead of asking this question: “how to sow “good deeds” so that we as a society or country can reap “good benefits” ? .
Why ask others to know which is bad or good, ask your intuition that is the inner guidance from the divine that we call Shiva. (Moreover, our innate feeling or our natural adherence to this law is due to accumulative “punya” of all the “good karma” of our ancestors and I have to say that we are depleting that source of “punya” fastly and furiously.)
Moreover, when you are exposed by truth coming out in the media, you are like a thief caught red handed. when WIKILEAK leader MR ASSANGE made you tremble , then what is the use of big big organisations with tax money ??? JUST dismantle them and proceed by dealing with others in a spirit of “equality” not thinking they are inferior to you.or they can be a threat to you .
I don’t say abandon your army and military preparedness, I say only that obsession and addiction should not go to unacceptable levels of paranoia or greed or fear.
USA should change this imperialistic approach just for your own good and the silent majority of wise American middle class people. The “bourgeois class of the USA” (politicians nexus with bankers and industrialists) should apply more ethical methods and abandon cunning strategies to subvert Asia and Africa. Then only can they reap fruits of peace and prosperity instead of crisis and chaos. BAGAVAT GITA says , “whatever you sow , so you will reap” every action will come back hit you more heavily than you think and more quickly. Then, why spend money uselessly on thinking tanks that produce only “intellectual smoke” from cerebral heating, so useless for humans ? CIA should be slimmed and all fat taken so that a mean CIA concentrates on effective defense of their country inside America and on human well-being of the USA population without interfering constantly in countries like NIGERIA or NICARAGUA or TITI CACA. I only condemn excess not the normal functioning of CIA or other spying organistions for your national interests, the measure of which I leave to your own judgement. Judging from how they function in India, I can only advise them to adapt their strategies to the quality of the people and the society in a highly spiritual country like India in the perspective of dharma and proceed to accomplish their missions not just acting only with the principle “no matter what measures I take if at all they yield results that I have fixed to myself ” mentality.
What is the solution TO ESCAPE THIS BIG BOSS ENCIRCLEMENT AND BRAIN WASHING? We have to regain our true self identity. Our authentic heritage, living according to our innate “swadharma” not according to somebody’s diktat.
I give a passage from RAJIVA MALHOTRA ‘s blog : The Axis of Neocolonialism :
Svaraj (self-rule) is as fundamental to the long term success of a civilization as is svaraj in the political and financial areas. Therefore, it is important to ask: whose way of representing knowledge will be in control? It is the representation system that defines the metaphors and terminology, interprets what they mean in various situations, influences what issues are selected to focus on, and, most importantly, grants privileges by determining who is to control this marketplace of ideas.
As an implicit body of standards, a representation system disguises a meta-ideology – the substratum of contexts on which specific ideologies emerge and interact. It includes the language used and the unstated frames of reference, and acts as the subliminal filter through which positions are constructed and their fate negotiated.
A people without their own representation system, in a worst case scenario, get reduced to being intellectual consumers looking up to the dominant culture. In the best case scenario, they could become intellectual producers, but only within the representation system as defined and controlled by the dominant culture, such as has happened recently with many Indian writers in English.
Ashis Nandy summarizes how this mental colonialism was brought about: “This colonialism colonises minds in addition to bodies and it releases forces within colonized societies to alter their cultural priorities once and for all…. Particularly, once the British rulers and the exposed sections of Indians internalized the colonial role definitions….the battle for the minds of men was to a great extent won by the Raj.”
The repetitious use of a given representation system eventually leads to a widely accepted set of “essences,” as stated by Friedreich Nietzsche: “The reputation, name, and appearance, the usual measure and weight of a thing, what it counts for — originally almost always wrong and arbitrary — grows from generation unto generation, merely because people believe in it, until it gradually grows to be a part of the thing and turns into its very body. What at first was appearance becomes in the end, almost invariably, the essence and is effective as such.”
Therefore, control over the representation of knowledge is analogous to control over the operating system of computers: representation systems are to competing ideas what operating systems are to computer applications. Control over this platform, especially its invisible standards and rules, is of strategic consequence.
End of excerpt from RAJIV MALHOTRA’s brilliant essay. (I advise you to buy at least his book on “breaking India”)
Let us be ourselves and not play the role of another man born 10000 kilometers from your sacred land.
I enriched and updated this above blog with a conclusion on a lighter vein. Making fun of grave things brings hope to create a better world (by making people understand through humour as did THENALIRAMAN, A CLOWN WHO CONVEYED WISE MESSAGES THROUGH COMEDY in an Indian KING’s COURT). Even though when you laugh at serious “BIG BOSS who is watching you ” like organisations , you feel as though you are a small boy who whistles when he passes by a graveyard to wade off fear , but just take the risk and continue to make people understand their errors and erroneous ways of acting …All this may one day bring a positive change that our future generations may see or perhaps with luck we can see.
THIS FORMULA IS COMPLEMENTARY BUT CAN APPLIED TO THE WHOLE WORLD: IT ‘s EFFECT IS TO MAKE PEOPLE INDIFFERENT TO EACH OTHER
MY DREAMS ABOUT A HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT
THAT DOES NEITHER STOP JOB CREATION NOR DESTROY OUR ENVIRONMENT.
We see the fruits of development in western world : first industrial revolution concentrates in few urban areas serial and massive units of standard production of consumer products then people move to those sites to fill the vacuum to contribute to that production, thus they tend to leave villages to live in urban areas, then all kinds of transport problems happen to remedy the first problem which was just caused by greed that made some capitalists forward industrial solutions in the first place, so step by step we are sucked by the vacuum of those greed motivated people who pump all human and natural resources to fulfil their greed; development without greed and in accordance with dharma can bloom and blossom ? And how it can happen? Can people be made to find joy and bliss in villages so that their exodus to dirty towns stop? CAN we imagine a development in a harmoniously covering all geographies without concentrating itself in few areas because of private initiative based on greed? CAN WE give more importance to small and medium companies and discourage big units except when they are justified by a social contribution that can not be done by smaller units? Small is beautiful and can be also job creating, what is your take? Can we imagine a DEVELOPMENT taking care of ecology and sustaining earthly resources and also spreading in a multidirectional and harmonious way in contrast to concentration in some big urban cities? CAN WE not imagine a human size and more locally rooted development thus making colossal infrastructure unnecessary because of workplace/living place distance being minimized WHEN PRODUCTION UNIT pops up in small size but in big numbers not only in towns but also in villages? Should not government orient their policy to support that harmonious development WITH ZERO IMPACT ON OUR natural biological diversity? Can’t we imagine like in FRANCE where the polluters should pay and other legislative measures to completely stop Ganges and other rivers pollution by leather industries? India needs jobs in millions and anything that can put few robots to make millions of cars can only be damaging to her specificity AND HOW can we accommodate these two antagonistic forces ? IN CHENNAI all Japanese and Americans have heavily invested but nothing (except Technicians controlling machines or workers doing a repetitive gesture from morning to evening) goes to create jobs for the size of India? By making villagers stay where they are, the need for cars will go down slowly. Infrastructure to help car capitalists will also become useless. When state bank of India face so much hurdles to open a branch in the USA why we give them easy access to our market? When they can come here and buy media and propagated anti India news, should government make amendments in fixing foreign shares in such a way they have no say what so ever or just made to quit India if they do not bring “new” technology? WHAT IS THE NEED for UNILEVER, PEPSI, COCA COLA, MC DONALD, MONSANTO, CARGIL, DOW CHEMICALS etc. in INDIA? Should we not make them quit India? They concentrate in them all greed that was the root pattern of the thought process of the Americans: what you are inside and how you think inside your mind come out in open daylight and is exposed before everyone in their actions and speeches. And their products and their food items. They epitomise greed in their products and goods and in their mega malls. We Indians should not get attracted by this “miroir aux allouettes” as they call in FRANCE and retain our “inner quality” as rose retains perfume, teck wood retains it’s hardness, water retains it’s purity.
Before I go “hors sujet” out of subject, here I am back with the concise formula that foolish politicians world over apply to make one another alien and aloof to each other :
Build big + 5 floor building everywhere knowing that all social specialists say it will only alienate people among themselves , making them egoists and individuals breaking apart all social feeling of belonging to one country.
Encourage greedy industrialists build big industries with the concept of concentrating 1000 people under one roof.
Create big distance between living place and working place by this concentration of industries in specific zones in and out urban areas.
Push people to take to the transportation system and middle class people to use cars because of the distance thus created.
Encourage industries and discourage agriculture by all means making agriculture profitless business so that farmers flood urban cities.
Make everything to push this exodus to it’s maximum so that villages will be deserted by youths who crowd the already overcrowded cities in search of industrial or service oriented jobs.
If you want to know how India is reacting to terrorism from PAKISTAN, see this video by AJIT DOVAL:
India and Germany to collaborate on education and vocational training:http://www.samachar.com/India-and-Germany-to-collaborate-on-education-and-vocational-tra…ining-oglxLqjfeba.html
The above mentioned initiative is carefully couched in terms of Germany helping India educate its people in science/vocations. Then comes the message at the end, “Opportunities to partner with Germany on their initiative to set up an International Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences were also discussed”.
Any western intrusion into humanities/social sciences amounts to further colonization into Western Universalism.
We suffer not only the fact that most Indian scholars in positions of influence in humanities/social sciences are steeped in WU and their careers depend on it, even worse is that we lack Hindu minded scholars of good quality and in large numbers. You don’t want to replace the anti-Hindus with uninformed pro-Hindus – that always backfires and makes things worse. So it’s not an easy predicament.
In this situation comes an offer from various western countries to “help” us. This means more western theories and further erasing of dharmic siddhanta.
What we need instead is to push indigenous research and training in our own worldviews – how our traditions study society and humanities. Once we have created a critical mass inside India then we must export this worldview and our trained scholars. That’s what the purpose of places like Nalanda used to be long ago. It created a huge soft power advantage for India.
While we were the world’s largest exporter of knowledge in the liberal arts once, we have now become one of the world’s largest importers of higher education.
The German ambassador is trying to impress the Indian government with carrots. How aware and well informed are our folks about the dangers of past German Indology from Max Mueller to Michael Witzel? BI has an overview of this past baggage in the early chapters.
While many of them distorted Indian Sanskrit, others busily plagiarized and digested it. For example: Wilhelm von Humboldt learned a lot about Pannini from other Indologists, and then claimed to invent modern grammar. Wikipedia entry has not a single word on the Sanskrit influence and says the following about him:
“He is credited with being the first European linguist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistics to identify human language as a rule-governed system, rather than just a collection of words and phrases paired with meanings. This idea is one of the foundations of Noam Chomsky http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky’s
Theory of language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_grammar. Chomsky frequently quotes Humboldt’s description of language as a system which “makes infinite use of finite means”, meaning that an infinite number of sentences can be created using a finite number of grammatical rules.”
Traditional Knowledge Systems
How India destroyed Traditional Knowledge Systems
It is now recognized that western criteria are not the sole benchmark by which other cultural knowledge should be evaluated. While the term ‘traditional’ sometimes carries the connotation of ‘pre-modern’ in the sense of ‘primitive’ or ‘outdated’, many of the traditional sciences and technologies were in fact quite advanced even by western standards as well as better adapted to unique local conditions and needs than their later ‘modern’ substitutes. In countries with ancient cultural traditions, the folk and elite science were taken as part of the same unified legacy, without any hegemonic categorizations.
However, modernization has homogenized various solutions, and this loss of ideas is similar to the destruction of biodiversity. Colonizers systematically derogated, exterminated or undermined the local traditional science, technology and crafts of the lands and people they plundered, because of their intellectual arrogance, and also to control and appropriate the economic means of production and the social means of organization.
Modern societies created hegemonic categories of science verses magic, technology verses superstitions etc., which were arbitrary and contrived. But many anthropologists who have recently worked with so-called ‘primitive’ peoples have been surprised to learn of some of their highly evolved and sophisticated technologies. The term ‘Traditional Knowledge System’ was thus coined by anthropologists as a scientific system which has its own validity, in contradistinction to ‘modern’ science.
The United Nations University proposal defines ‘Traditional Knowledge Systems’ as follows: «Traditional knowledge or ‘local knowledge’ is a record of human achievement in comprehending the complexities of life and survival in often unfriendly environments. Traditional knowledge, which may be technical, social, organizational, or cultural was obtained as part of the great human experiment of survival and development.”
Laura Nader describes the purpose of studying Traditional Knowledge Systems (TKS): “The point is to open up people’s minds to other ways of looking and questioning, to change attitudes about knowledge, to reframe the organization of science — to formulate a way of thinking globally about traditions.”
Modern science can perhaps be dated to Newton’s times. But Traditional Knowledge Systems date from more than 2 million years, when Homo habilis started making his tools and interacting with nature. Since the dawn of history, different peoples have contributed to different branches of science and technology, often in a manner involving interactive contacts across cultures separated by large distances. This interactive influence is becoming clearer as the vast extent of global trade and cultural migration across large distances is being properly recognized by researchers.
However, one finds that generally the history of science as commonly taught is mostly Eurocentric. It typically consists of two phases: It starts with Greece, neglecting the influences of others upon Greece. Then it ‘fast forwards’ many centuries to the Enlightenment period around 1500, to claim modern science as an exclusively European triumph, by neglecting the influence of others, especially India, upon the European Renaissance and Enlightenment. The European Dark Ages is presumed to be dark worldwide, when in fact, the rest of the world thrived with innovation and prosperity while Europe was at the peripheries until the conquest of America in 1492.
Thanks to especially the work of Joseph Needham, China’s contributions to global knowledge have recently become known to a wide range of scholars. Even more recently, thanks largely to Arab scholars, the important role of Islamic empires in the transmission of ideas into Europe has become better appreciated. However, in the latter case, many discoveries and innovations of India, as acknowledged by the Arab translators themselves, are often depicted as being of Arab origin, when in fact, the Arabs often retransmitted what they had learnt from India over to Europe.
Therefore, the vast and significant contributions made by the Indian sub-continent have been widely ignored. The British colonizers could never accept the fact that Indians were highly civilized even in the third millennium BC, when the British were still in a barbarian stage. Such acknowledgment would destroy the civilizing mission of Europe that was the intellectual premise for colonialization.
British Indologists did not study TKS, except to quietly document them as systems competing with their own, and to facilitate the transfer of technology into Britain’s industrial revolution. What was found valuable was quickly appropriated (see examples below), and its Indian manufacturers were forced out of business, and this was in many instances justified as civilizing them. Meanwhile, a new history of India was fabricated to ensure that present and future generations of mentally colonized people would believe in the inherent inferiority of their own traditional knowledge and in the superiority of the colonizers’ ‘modern’ knowledge. This has been called Macaulayism, named after Lord Macaulay who successfully championed this strategy of Britain most emphatically starting in the 1830s.
Because it became difficult for Europeans to ignore the massive archaeological evidence of classical Indian science and technology, they propounded that the Indus civilization had to be a transplant from the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. These constructions in historiography have tended to be cumulative rather than re-constructive, i.e. more layers were constructed without re-examining or correcting prior ones. Unfortunately, since Independence there has not been much improvement in such distortions of history, and this has continued to negatively impact the understanding and appreciation of TKS. Many in India’s intellectual elite continue to promote the notion that pre-colonial India was feudalistic, pre-rational, and by implication in need of being invaded for its own benefit.
This has created a climate in which entrenched prejudice against TKS still persists in contemporary society. For example, according to TKS activist Madhu Kishwar, India’s government today continues to make many TKS illegal or impossible to practice. Even after independence, many British laws against TKS have continued, even though their original intent was to destroy India’s massive domestic industry and foreign trade and to replace them with Britain’s industrial revolution. It is significant to note that today less than 10% of India’s labor works in the ‘organized sector’, namely as employees of a company. The remaining 90% are individual freelancers, contract laborers, private entrepreneurs, and so on, many of whom still practice their traditional trades.
However, given the perpetuation of colonial laws that render much of their work illegal, they are highly vulnerable to all sorts of exploitation, corruption, and abuse. The descendants of India’s traditional knowledge workers, who built massive cities, technologies, and dominated world trade for centuries, are today de-legitimized in their own country under a democratic government. Many of today’s poor jatis, such as textile, masonry, and metal workers, were at one time the guilds that supplied the world with so many and varied industrial items.
It is important to note that amongst all the conquered and colonized civilizations of the Old World, India is unique in the following respect: Its wealth was industrial and created by its workers’ ingenuity and labor. In all other instances, such as the Native Americans, the plunder by the colonizers was mainly of land, gold and other natural assets. But in India’s case, the colonizers had a windfall of extraordinary profit margins from control of India’s exports, taxation of India’s economic production, and eventually the transfer of technology and production to the colonizer’s home. This comprised the immense transfer of wealth out of India.
From being the world’s major exporting economy (along with China), India was reduced to an importer of goods; from being the source of much of the economic capital that funded Britain’s industrial revolution, it became one of the biggest debtor nations; from its envied status as the wealthiest nation, it became a land synonymous with poverty; and from the nation with a large number of prestigious centers of higher education that attracted the cream of foreign students from Eurasia, it became the land with the highest number of illiterate persons. This remains a major untold story. The education system’s subversion of India’s TKS in its history and social studies curricula is a major factor for the stereotyping about India. Even when told of these things, few westerners and elitist Indians are willing to believe them, as the prejudices about India are too deeply entrenched.
The Global Problem Today
The present day globalizing economy with its mass media glorification of the western lifestyle is resulting in the homogenization of human ‘wants’ and in unachievable expectations. Conventional western technology by itself cannot deliver or sustain this false promise to the world, for several reasons:
Westernized living is unachievable by billions of poor humans, because the capital required simply does not exist in the world, and the trickle-down effect is too slow to reach the bottom tier where most of humanity lives.
Western civilization depends upon inequality — there must be cheap labor ‘somewhere else’, and cheap natural resources purchasable from somewhere, without regard to the big picture of world society or global ecology. This practical necessity of the present-day global capitalist system conflicts with the equal rights of states and persons long theorized and promoted. All sorts of reasons are offered against such drastic proposals as opening all borders and allowing free competition among all available laborers, contradicting the ‘freedom’ position so popular in theory.
The western economic development model demands ‘growth’ to sustain valuations in the stock markets, and growth cannot be indefinite. A steady state economy in zero growth equilibrium would devastate the wealth of the west, since the financial models are predicated on growth.
Even if the above obstacles could be overcome and the world’s six billion persons were to achieve western lifestyle, it would be unsustainable for the planet’s natural resources to sustain.
When Gandhi was asked whether he would like India to develop a lifestyle similar to England’s, his reply may be paraphrased as follows: The British had to plunder the Earth to achieve their lifestyle. Given India’s much larger population, it would require the plunder of many planets to achieve the same.
If the idealized lifestyle is unavailable to all humanity, then on what basis (morally, intellectually, and in terms of practical enforcement) do a few countries hope to sustain their superiority over others so as to maintain such a lifestyle? The point is that employing TKS is an imperative for humanity at large, while reducing global dependence on inequitable and resource draining ‘advanced’ knowledge systems.
We have to study, preserve, and revive the Traditional Knowledge Systems for the economic betterment of the world in a holistic manner, as these technologies are eco-friendly and allow sustainable growth without harming the environment. India’s scientific heritage needs to be brought to the attention of the educated world, so that we can replace the Eurocentric history of science and technology with an honest globalization of ideas. This goal requires generations of new research in these fields, compilation of existing data, and dissemination through books, seminars, websites, articles, films, etc.
Indian Contributions to Global Science
Civil Engineering: The Indus-Sarasvati Civilization was the world’s first to build planned towns, with underground drainage, civil sanitation, hydraulic engineering, and air-cooling architecture. Oven baked bricks were invented in India in approximately 4,000 BC. From complex Harappan towns to Delhi’s Qutub Minar and other large projects, India’s indigenous technologies were very sophisticated in design, planning, water supply, traffic flow, natural air conditioning, complex stonework, and construction engineering.
Metal Technologies: They pioneered many tools for construction, including the needle with hole at the pointed end, hollow drill, and true saw. Many of these important tools were subsequently used in the rest of the world, centuries later during Roman times. India was the first to produce rust-free iron. In the mid-first millennium BC, the Indian wootz steel was very popular in the Persian courts for making swords. The British sent teams to India to analyze the metallurgical processes that were later appropriated by Britain. Making India’s metal works illegal was motivated partly by the goal to industrialize Britain, but also because of the risk of gun manufacturing by potential nationalists. India’s exporting steel industry was systematically dismantled and relocated to Britain.
Textiles: India’s textile exports were legendary. Roman archives contain official complaints about massive cash drainage because of imports of fine Indian textiles. One of the earliest industries relocated from India to Britain was in textiles, and it became the first major success of the Industrial Revolution, with Britain replacing India as the world’s leading textile exporter. Many of the machines built by Britain used Indian designs that had been improved over long periods. Meanwhile, India’s textile manufacturer’s were de-licensed, even tortured in some cases, over-taxed, regulated, etc., to ‘civilize’ them into virtual extinction.
Shipping and Ship Building: India participated in the earliest known ocean based trading systems. Regarding more recent centuries, it is known to scholars but not to the general public that Vasco da Gama’s ships were captained by a Gujarati sailor, and much of Europe’s ‘discovery’ of navigation was in fact an appropriation of pre-existing navigation in the Indian Ocean, that had been a thriving trade system for centuries before Europeans ‘discovered’ it. Some of the world’s largest and most sophisticated ships were built in India and China. The compass and other navigation tools were already in use at the time. (‘Nav’ is the Sanskrit word for boat, and is the root word in ‘navigation’, and in ‘navy’, although etymology is not a reliable proof of origin.)
Water Harvesting Systems: Scientists estimate that there were 1.3 million man-made water lakes and ponds across India, some as large as 250 square miles. These are now being rediscovered using satellite imagery. These enabled most of the rain water to be harvested and used for irrigation, drinking, etc. till the following year’s rainfall. Village organizations managed these resources, but this decentralized management was dismantled during the colonial period, when tax collection, cash expropriation, and legal enforcements became the primary function of the new governance appointed by the British. Recently, thousands of these ‘talabs’ have been restored, and this has resulted in a re-emergence of abundant water year round in many places. (This is a very different approach compared to the massive modern dams built in the name of progress that have devastated the lives of millions.)
Forest Management: Many interesting findings have recently come out about the way forests and trees were managed by each village and a careful method applied to harvest medicines, firewood, and building material in accordance with natural renewal rates. There is now a database being built of these ‘sacred groves’ across India. Again, it’s a story of an economic asset falling into disuse and abuse because of dismantling the local governance and uprooting respect for traditional systems in general. Massive logging by the British to export India’s timber to fund the two world wars and other civilizing programs of the empire are never mentioned when scholars try to explain India’s current ecological disasters. The local populations had been quite sophisticated in managing their ecology until they were dis-empowered.
Farming Techniques: India’s agricultural production was historically large and sustained a huge population compared to other parts of the world. Surpluses were stored for use in a drought year.
But the British turned this industry into a cash cow, exporting massive amounts of harvests even during shortages, so as to maximize the cash expropriation. This caused tens of millions to die of starvation while at the same time India’s food production was exported at unprecedented rates to generate cash. Also, traditional non-chemical based pesticides have been recently revived in India with excellent results, replacing Union Carbide’s products in certain markets.
Traditional Medicine: This is now a well-known and respected field. Much re-legitimizing of Indian medicine has already been done, thanks to many western labs and scientists. Many multinationals no longer denigrate traditional medicine and have in fact been trying to secure patents on Indian medicine without acknowledging the source.
Mathematics, Logic and Linguistics: Besides other sciences, Indians developed advanced math, including the concept of zero, the base-ten decimal system now in use worldwide, and many important trigonometry and algebra formulae. They made several astronomical discoveries. Diverse schools of logic and philosophy proliferated. India’s Panini is acknowledged as the founder of linguistics, and his Sanskrit grammar is still the most complete and sophisticated of any language in the world.
There were numerous other indigenous Indian industries. India’s manufactured goods were highly prized around the world. We must evaluate the historical importance of these TKS based on their economic value for their time, when their importance could be compared to today’s high tech industry. India’s own English educated elite should be made aware of this to shed their Macaulayite inferiority complexes. Furthermore, the development, refinement and extension of TKS offer potential benefits capable of resolving or diminishing some of the inequities in modern societies worldwide.
Besides the above examples of Indian contributions to the very foundations of so-called ‘western’ science, another category of Traditional Knowledge Systems is non-literate folk science. Western science as a whole has condemned and ignored anything that it did not either appropriate or develop, as being magic and superstition. However, in countries such as India that have cultural continuity, ancient traditions survive with a rich legacy of folk science.
In North America and Australia, where original populations have been more than decimated, such continuity of folk tradition was disrupted. In Western nations with large colonies in the Old and New Worlds, such knowledge systems were looked down upon. It is this prejudice that subverts the importance of folk science, and ridicules it as superstition. The process of contrasting western science with folk knowledge systems extends to the demarcation of knowledge systems in different categories of science versus religion, rational versus magical, and so on. But we need to insist that these western imposed hegemonic categories are contrived and artificial.
Western science seldom realized that non-literate folk science preserves the wisdom gained through millennia of experience, direct observation, and has been transmitted by word of mouth. Development projects based solely on new technologies are pushing the Traditional Knowledge Systems towards extinction. This traditional wisdom of humankind needs to be preserved and used for our survival.
Westernized ‘experts’ go to non-literate cultures assuming them to be ‘knowledge blanks’ which need to be programmed with modern science and technology. Ramkrishnan, the renowned ecologist, humbly admitted that the ecological management practiced today by the tribes of the northeastern states of India is far superior to anything he could teach them. A good example in this regard is the alder (Alnus nepalensis), which has been cultivated in the jhum (shifting cultivation) fields by the Khonoma farmers in Nagaland for centuries. It has multiple usages for the farmers, since it is a nitrogen-fixing tree and helps to retain the soil fertility. Its leaves are used as fodder and fertilizer, and it is also utilized as timber. One could cite numerous such examples. Unfortunately, many plants which the tribes traditionally cultivated for specific benefits have now disappeared in the name of progress.
The vast majority of modern medicines patented by western pharmaceutical firms are based on tropical plants. The most common method to select candidates for detailed testing has been for western firms to scout tropical societies, seek out established ‘folk’ remedies, and to subject these to ‘western scientific legitimizing’. In many cases, patents owned by multinationals are largely for isolating the active ingredients in a lab, and going through rigorous protocols of testing and patent filing. While this is an important and expensive task, and deserves credit, these are seldom independent discoveries from scratch. Never has the society that has truly discovered it through centuries of empirical testing and trial and error received any recognition, much less any share of royalty. India’s recent fights in international courts, over western patents of its traditional intellectual property in agriculture and medicine, have brought much needed publicity for this arena.
Colin Scott writes: “With the upsurge of multidisciplinary interest in ‘traditional ecological knowledge’, models explicitly held by indigenous people in areas as diverse as forestry, fisheries, and physical geography are being paid increasing attention by western science specialists, who have in some cases established extremely productive long-term dialogues with local experts. The idea that local experts are often better informed than their western peers is at last receiving significant acknowledgment beyond the boundaries of anthropology.”
But in too many cases, western scholars reduce India’s experts to ‘native informants’ destined to live below the glass ceiling: the pandit as native informant to the western Sanskritist; the poor woman in Rajasthan as native informant to the western feminist seeking to cure her of her tradition; the herbal farmer as native informant to the western pharmaceutical firm appropriating medicines for patents; etc. Given their poverty in modern times, these ‘native informants’ dish out what the western scholar expects to hear in order to fit his/her model, because in return they receive gifts, rewards, compensation, recognition, and even trips and visas in many cases.
Rarely have western scholars acknowledged India’s knowledge bearers as fellow scientists and equal partners, as co-authors or as co-panelists. This competitive obsession to make ‘original’ discoveries and to put one’s name on publications has exacerbated the tendency to appropriate with one hand, while denigrating the source with other hand so as to hide the plagiarism. We have referred to this as ‘academic arson’.
Rituals as Knowledge Transmitters
Villagers in remote areas like Uttaranchal have events called ‘Jagars’, in which the Jagaria sends theDangaria into a sort of trance. The Dangaria then helps sort out problems, provides remedies for ailments, resolves social conflicts of the village society etc. One could dismiss this as superstition; but this is also considered a traditional method of reaching the unconscious. Does the Jagaria use his spiritual powers to reach and tap the unconscious region of the mind of the Dangaria? Or, as propounded by Vaclav Havel, did these rituals represent the attempts of ancient humans to come to terms with the unknown, the non-rational, and the unconscious parts of our beings? Were these devices useful to invoke lost memories of the ancient past?
We are, therefore, not willing to dismiss Jagar as some mumbo-jumbo, but a phenomenon worth scientific investigation. This should be an important scientific research connecting Traditional Knowledge Systems to Inner Sciences. Ironically, from Jung onwards, many westerners have studied and appropriated these traditional ‘inner sciences’, renamed and repackaged them. Meanwhile, the original discoverers and practitioners have been dismissed as primitive societies awaiting cure by westernization.
Myths and Legends:
Myths and legends sometimes represent the attempts of our ancestors to explain the scientific observations that they made about the world around them and transmitted to the future. They chose different models to interpret the observations, but the observations were empirical. Let us compare some of the old legends with modern scientific observations about the geological history of the Indian subcontinent. We will discuss three examples, and each could be seen as fiction or hard fact or some combination of both:
1) The geology of Kashmir (India) has been studied for more than 150 years now. As a result of these studies, it is now known that due to the rise of the Pir Panjal range around 4 million years ago, a vast lake formed, blocking the drainage from the Himalayas. Subsequently, the river Jhelum emerged as a result of the opening of a fault near Baramula, draining out the lake about 85,000 years ago. This is accepted as the geological history of the Kashmir valley.
Now let us compare this to the old legend: In Kashmir there is a very old tradition which describes a vast lake, called Satisara, in the valley in very ancient times. Kalhana, a poet chronicler, wrote his bookRajatarangini, or ‘The River of Kings’, in 1150 AD. In this book, he mentions an ancient lake (Satisara) giving a reference from a still earlier text, Nilamata Purana.
Aurel Stein (1961), who translated Rajatarangini, describes the legend of Satisara in these words: “This legend is mentioned by Kalhana in the Introduction of his Chronicle and is related at great length inNilamata… The demon Jalodbhava who resided in this lake was invisible in his own element and refused to come out of the lake. Vishnu thereupon called upon his brother Balabhadra to drain the lake…” Ignoring the mythical struggles between gods and demons, the legend does depict an account resembling the draining out of the primeval lake.
2) The sea level on the West Coast of India, as elsewhere during the Ice Ages, was about 100 meters lower than today and started rising only after 16,000 years ago. This is the accepted eustatic history.
The related legend says that when Parasurama donated all his land to the Brahmins, the latter asked him how he could live on the land that he had already donated away. Parasurama went to the cliff on the seashore and threw his Parasu (hatchet) into the sea and the sea receded, and then he occupied the land that thus emerged. This is possibly a reference to the regression of the sea and the newly emerged land.
3) The third example is of the river Satluj, a tributary of the Indus today. In finding its new course, the Sarasvati braided into several channels. This is the accepted geology.
The relevant legend says that the holy sage Vashista wanted to commit suicide by jumping into the Sarasvati, but the river wouldn’t allow such a sage to drown himself, and broke up into hundreds of shallow channels, hence its ancient name Satadru. Unless the early author of such a legend observed the braiding process of the Satluj, he could not have imagined such a legend. This is another instance of legends coinciding with a modern geological observation.
Theorizing the possible role of myths, Scott says: “The complementarity of the literal and the figurative help us to realize that the distinction between myth and science is not structural, but procedural… Myths in a broader, paradigmatic sense are condensed expressions of root metaphors that reflect the genius of particular knowledge traditions… Numerous studies have found that the “anthropomorphic” paradigms of egalitarian hunters and horticulturalists not only generate practical knowledge consistent with the insights of scientific ecology, but simultaneously cultivate an ethic of environmental responsibility that for western societies has proven elusive.”
The Israelis have been very successful in rediscovering many lost technologies relevant to their environment and culture by investigating their ancient myths and traditions. Through this, they have become pioneers in many processes of economic value that conventional European technology lacks.
India’s intellectual resources are not limited to (though they are limited by) its ‘Indi-genius’ doubting intellectual elite. Today, there are Indian economists, social developers, and scholars who are working hard to revitalize many TKS. Resources for research and teaching of India’s Traditional Knowledge Systems should be made available for the following reasons:
India has amongst the best cases for successful revival of TKS: It has a rich heritage still intact in this area. It has the largest documented ancient literature relevant to TKS. It has the intellectual resources to appreciate this and to implement this revival, provided the Macaulayite mental blocks could be shaken up through re-education of its governing elite. It has dire needs to diversify beyond dependence solely upon the new panacea of globalization and westernization.
India’s scientific heritage, besides its philosophical and cultural legacy, needs to be properly understood. The aim is not inspired by chauvinism, but to understand the genius of Indian civilization better. This would overhaul the current assessment of India’s potential.
To correct the portrayal of the history of science, the history of ideas, mainstream accounts of world history, anthropology and culture. This entails emphasizing to scholars and educators that TKS should be included, especially India’s achievements and contributions to world science that have been very significant but unappreciated.
To include Traditional Knowledge Systems in economic planning, because they are eco-friendly, sustainable, labor rather than capital intensive, and more available to the masses. This should be done in parallel with the top down ‘modern’ scientific development using westernized ‘globalization’, as the two should co-exist and each should be used based on its merits.
TKS and Inner Sciences, History, and Society Today
Inner Sciences: The Inner Sciences of India have been on the one hand appropriated by the west, and on the hand have been depicted as being in conflict with the progressive, rational, and materialistic west. In fact, inner and outer realms are often viewed as opposites that can at best be balanced because one contradicts the other. This assumes that Inner Sciences make a person and society less productive, creative, and competitive in the outer realm. However, India’s TKS are empirical evidence to demonstrate that Inner Sciences and outer development did co-exist in a mutually symbiotic relationship. This is a major reason to properly study India’s TKS.
Without removing this tension between inner and outer, it would be difficult to seriously motivate the modern world to advance in the Inner Sciences in a major way. Inner progress without the outer would be a world negating worldview, which India’s TKS record shows not to be the case in classical India. Outer progress without inner cultivation results in societies that are too materialistic, too selfish to the point of genocides and holocausts, eco-unfriendly, and dependent upon force and control for social harmony.
History: Until the 1800s, TKS generated large scale economic productivity for Indians. It was the TKS based thriving Indian economy that attracted so many waves of invaders, culminating with the British. Traditionally, India was one of the richest regions in the world, and most Indians were neither ‘backward’ nor uneducated nor poor. Some historians have recently begun to come out with this side of the story, demonstrating that it was massive economic drainage, oppression, social re-engineering, and so forth at the hands of colonizers that made millions of ‘new poor’ over the past few centuries. This explanation yields a radically different reading of the poverty in India today. Upon acknowledging India’s traditional knowledge systems, one is forced to discard accounts of its history that essentialize its poverty and the accompanying social evils. The reality of TKS contradicts notions such as:
India was less rational and scientific than the west.
India was world negating in its outlook (which is a misreading of the Inner Sciences), and hence did not advance itself from within.
India’s civilization was mainly imported via invaders, except for its problems such as caste that were its own ‘essences’.
Indian society was socially backward (to the point of being seen as lacking in morality); hence it depends upon westernization to reform its current problems.
Society Today: Is India a ‘developing’ society, or is it a ‘re-developing’ society? Without appreciating the TKS of a people, how could anthropologists and sociologists interpret the current condition of a society? Were they always poor, always living in polluted and socially problematic conditions as today, in which case these problems are essences? Or is there a history behind the present condition? This history should not, however, excuse the failures of fifty years of independence to deal properly with the economic and social problems that persist.
Going forward, Traditional Knowledge Systems are eco-friendly, symbiotic with the environment, and therefore can help provide a sustainable lifestyle. Since the benefits of heavy industries do not trickle down to the people below the poverty line or to so-called developing countries, a revival of traditional technologies and crafts must complement the modern ‘development’ schemes for eradication of poverty. In this regard, the distinction between elite and folk science was non-existent in ancient times: India’s advanced metallurgy and civil engineering was researched and practiced by artisan guilds.
Author: Rajiv Malhotra
Follow him on twitter@RajivMessage
SMRITI IRANI & INDIANIZING EDUCATION
Posted on June 9, 2014 by François Gautier
Even though FRANCOIS GAUTIER was brought up like a true FRENCH CHRISTIAN in FRANCE, since the day he arrived in INDIA as a French correspondent for a newspaper, he had always held in high esteem Hinduism and never stopped admiring it’s UNIVERSAL ethos better described in one magic word “DHARMA”. Here is the essay written by him:
As a lover of Indian culture and spirituality, I am sometimes appalled at how westernized education is in India. I can only hope that the new Human Resources Minister will take-up the job to « Indianise, nationalise and spiritualise » education in India. Of course, she will be criticized by the secular media and intellectuals who will call it « a hidden Hindu agenda » she has already been attacked anyway, because she formed a committee to study the ancient literary works like the Upanishads and the Vedas and single out appropriate texts emphasizing the Hindu contribution to science, mathematics and philosophy. Reportedly, the officials have been asked to create study materials “encapsulating’’ the glories of the Hindu “golden age’’.
With 800 million soles, Hindus constitute the majority of this country. Why should Hindus then be ashamed of a « Hindu » education? Traditionally and historically, Hinduism has always been the most tolerant of all religions, allowing persecuted minorities from all over the world, whether the Jerusalem Jews, the Parsis from Persia, Christians from Syria, or even Arab merchants, to settle in India over the centuries and practice their religion in peace. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of India’s invaders, be it the Muslims, who ruthlessly tried for ten centuries to stamp out this most peaceful of all religions; or the Christians missionaries, who used every means at their disposal to convert Hindus to the « true » religion (and are still trying today).
But Hinduism, never tried to convert anybody, never sent its armies or missionaries to neighbouring countries, to impose its religion and ways of life – not even by non-violence means, as the Buddhists did all over Asia.
It should also be said that Hinduism is much more than a religion, IT’S A WAY OF LIFE, a universal spiritual outlook, which has allowed numerous sects, branches, and philosophies, to develop within its fold, as long as they were faithful to the central truth of Hinduism: DHARMA. It even recognizes the truth and validity of other creeds – and it’s perfectly normal for a Hindu to have pictures of Guru Govind, Christ, Buddha and Krishna in their homes. For are they not both avatars? And is that not true secularism (and not the opportunistic secularism of India’s politicians, which has divided India along caste and religious lines)?
Then why should Hindus not be proud of Hinduism? It has not only shaped the psyches of Hindus, but also of Indian Christians, Jains, Parsis, even Muslims, who are like no other Muslims in the world. And why should Indians be ashamed of their own civilisation whose greatness was foremost Hindu? Why should they refuse to have their children read the Vedas, which constitute one of the great fountains of spiritual wisdom, or the Bhagavad Gita, which contains all the secrets of eternal life? Or the Ramanaya and the Mahabharata, which teach the great values of human nature: courage, selflessness, spiritual endeavour, love of one’s wife and neighbours…
Are the French ashamed of their Greco-Roman inheritance? Not at all ! On the contrary they even think that civilisation started only with the Greeks. Would you call the Germans or the Italians « nationalists » because they have Christian Democrats Parties? Christianity is the founding stone of Western civilisation and nobody dares deny it. Clinton goes to the mass and swears on the Bible and none finds anything to say. We French are brought-up listening to the values of Homer’s « Iliad », or Corneille’s « Le Cid ». It is true that in France there has been a separation of the State and the Church; but that is because at one time the Church misused its enormous political power and grabbed enormous amounts of lands and gold. But no such thing ever happened India. The much maligned Brahmins never interfered in politics and today they are often a neglected lot.
When they took over India, the British set upon establishing an intermediary race of Indians, whom they could entrust with their work at the middle level echelons and who could one day be convenient instruments to rule by proxy or semi-proxy. The tool to shape these « British clones » was EDUCATION. In the words of Macaulay, the « pope » of British schooling in India: « We must at present do our best to form a class, who may be interpreters between us and the millions we govern; a class of persons, Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellects ». Macaulay had very little regard for Hindu culture and education: « all the historical information which can be collected from all the books which have been written in the Sanskrit language, is less valuable than what may be found in the paltriest abridgement used at preparatory schools in England ». Or : « Hindus have a literature of small intrinsic value, hardly reconcilable with morality, full of monstrous superstitions »…
It seems today that India’s Marxist and Muslim intelligentsia could not agree more with Macaulay or with Charles Grant (1746-1823), Chairman of the East India Company, who said : “we cannot avoid recognising in the people of Hindustan a race of men lamentably degenerate and base…governed by malevolent and licentious passions…and sunk in misery by their vices”.
For the dream of Macaulay has come true: nowadays, the greatest adversaries of the « Indianised and spiritualised education » of Mrs Smriti Irani, are the descendants of these « Brown Shahibs » : the « secular » politicians, the journalists, the top bureaucrats, in fact the whole Westernised cream of India. And what is even more paradoxical, is that most of them are Hindus.
It is they who upon getting independence, have denied India its true identity and borrowed blindly from the British education system, without trying to adapt it to the unique Indian mentality and psychology; and it is they who are refusing to accept « an Indianisation, nationalisation and spirtualisation » of India’s education system, which is totally western-oriented and is churning out machines learning by heart (Indian children must be amongst those having most homework in the world) boring academics which are of little usefulness in life. And what India is getting from this education is a youth which apes the West : they go to Mac Donald’s, thrive on MTV culture, wear the latest Klein jeans and Lacoste T Shirts, and in general are useless, rich parasites, in a country which has so many talented youngsters who live in poverty. They will grow-up like millions of other western clones in the developing world, who wear a tie, read the New York Times and swear by liberalism and secularism to save their countries from doom.
But then, what does makes India unique? Nr Narendra Modi set the right tone when he performed aarthi in Varanasi after becoming PM. The last BJP Human Resources Minister, Dr Murli Manohar Joshi, wanted to make Sanskrit compulsory in school. Great idea ! Sanskrit is the Mother of all languages, so intricate, so subtle, so rich, that no other language can equal it today. And moreover, it could become the unifying language of India, apart from English, which is spoken only by a tiny minority. “Sanskrit ought still to have a future as the language of the learned and it will not be a good day for India when the ancient tongues cease entirely to be written or spoken”, admonished 50 years ago Sri Aurobindo, India’s great Sage and Seer .
A dead language, you say ! Impossible to revive?
But that’s what they argued about Hebrew. And did not the Jewish people, when they got back their land in 1948, revive their “dead” language, so that it is spoken today by ALL Jewish people and has become alive again?…
The same thing ought to be done with Sanskrit, but as Sri Aurobindo points out: “it must get rid of the curse of the heavy pedantic style contracted by it in its decline, with the lumbering impossible compounds and the overweight of hair-splitting erudition”. Let the scholars begin now to revive and modernise the Sanskrit language, it would be a sure sign of the dawning of the Renaissance of India. In a few years it should be taught as the second language in schools throughout the country, with the regional language as the first and English as the third. Then will India again have its own unifying language.
Why should anyone object to Saraswati, the Goddess of learning, She who bestowed so much Grace on India. In 1939, a disciple had said to Sri Aurobindo that: “there are some people who object to the singing of Vande Mataram as a national song; Sri Aurobindo had replied: “in that case Hindus should give up their culture”. But the disciple had continued: “the argument is that the song speaks of Hindu gods, like Durga and that it is offensive to Muslims”. Said Sri Aurobindo: “but it is not a religious song, it is a national song and the Durga spoken of is India as the Mother. Why should not the Muslims accept it? In the Indian concept of nationality, the Hindu view should be naturally there. if it cannot find a place, the Hindus may as well be asked to give-up their culture. The Hindus don’t object to “Allah-Ho-Akbar”.
It is then obvious that Education in India has to be totally revamped. The kind of Westernised education which is standard in India, does have its place, because India wants to be on par with the rest of the world, and Indian youth should be able to deal confidently with the West: do business, talk, and relate to a universal world culture. But nevertheless, the first thing that Indian children should be taught IS THE GREATNESS OF THEIR OWN CULTURE. They should learn to revere the Vedas, they should be taught the genius of the Mahabharata and the Ramanayana; they should be told that in this country everything has been done, that it was an unsurpassed civilisation, when the West was still mumbling its first words, that Indian civilisation reached dizzying heights, which have been since unsurpassed. But overall they should be taught early that India’s greatness is her spirituality her world-wide wisdom. INDIA’S NEW EDUCATION HAS TO BE SPIRITUALISED; IT HAS TO BE AN INNER EDUCATION, WHICH TEACHES TO LOOK AT THINGS FROM THE INNER PRISM, NOT THROUGH THE WESTERN ARTIFICIAL LOOKING GLASS.
India’s Dharma, her eternal quest for truth, should be drilled in the child from an early age. And from this firm base, everything then can be taught -from the most modern forms of mathematics, to the latest scientific technologies.
Finally we can only end by echoing the words of Sri Aurobindo who was India’s most ardent revolutionary and an avatar, who foresaw Humanity’s next stage of evolution : ” Whoever wishes to cut of the nation from its past, is no friend of our national growth. Whoever fails to take advantage of the present, is losing us the battle of life. We must therefore save for India all that she has stored up of knowledge, character and noble thoughts in her immemorial past. We must acquire for her the best knowledge that the West can give her and assimilate it to her own peculiar type of national temperament. We must introduce the best methods of teaching humanity has developed, whether modern or ancient. And all these we must harmonise into a system which will be impregnated with the spirit of self-reliance, so as to build up men and not machines”. Dear Mrs Irani, you have a long and tough task ahead of you. Be ready for the brickbats…
INDIANISE THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
MINORITY RIGHT IS GRANTED NOT FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CULTURE OF THE MAJORITY COMMUNITY.
[Joseph Pulikunnel, Director, Indian Institute for Christian Studies]
The need for Indianisation of the church was mooted by RSS and late Cardinal Joseph Parekattil Archbishop of Ernakulam diocese supported the move. He wrote on 15 the August 1986 that it is imperative to launch a movement of indigenisation of the Churches. “When a non-Christian embraces Christianity, following the dictates of his conscience, he should not be penalised for that, by uprooting him from his social and cultural traditions. What affinity, relationship or indebtedness has he to the foreign culture? From an apostolic point of view, the thought patterns, language terminology, symbols, gestures, postures etc. of our liturgy should be intelligible to the non-Christian population as well. This process of Indianisation is a basic right of ours and not a concession made by anybody, and no one should misinterpret it as bait to attract more flies.” (Syro-Malabar Liturgy as I see it, Appendix, page 118).
Dr. Subramanian Swamy
How is it that all of a sudden, through 1000’s of years of human history, all the great scientists of the western world were born together??? Was it a lottery i…nto the materialistic development of countries like UK, USA, Germany, etc.???
Only an Indian, who is well aware of his culture can raise such a question, as westerners give less scope for going against them.
The truth is that when Newton’s forefathers were monkeys, Bhaskaracharya, an Indian scholar, wrote an entire book on gravity. Einstein was wise enough to accept that the source of inspiration for all his research was Indian culture.
Our science, though lot more advanced, was never patented, as the generations who lived then, did lot of research beyond the materialistic world as well.
But when thieves arrived our country, they had no option but to steal and register our research in their names. All they needed was a stamp which gave them a license to steal our research.
ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION ON THIS TROJAN HORSE INSIDE INDIA HOSTED BY C.I.A. PART 1
CIA’s Trojan Horse enters the Heart of India
GreatGameIndia / April 24, 2014
The CIA uses philanthropic foundations as the most effective conduit to channel large sums of money to Agency projects without alerting the recipients to their source. From the early 1950s to the present the CIA’s intrusion into the foundation field was and is huge. A U.S. Congressional investigation in 1976 revealed that nearly 50% of the 700 grants in the field of international activities by the principal foundations were funded by the CIA. The CIA considers foundations such as Ford “The best and most plausible kind of funding cover”. The collaboration of respectable and prestigious foundations, according to one former CIA operative, allowed the Agency to fund “a seemingly limitless range of covert action programs affecting youth groups, labor unions, universities, publishing houses and other private institutions”. The latter included “human rights” groups beginning in the 1950s to the present. One of the most important “private foundations” collaborating with the CIA over a significant span of time in major projects in the cultural Cold War is the Ford Foundation.
CIA & The Ford Foundation
By the late 1950s the Ford Foundation possessed over $3 billion in assets. The leaders of the Foundation were in total agreement with Washington’s post-WWII projection of world power. A noted scholar of the period writes:
“At times it seemed as if the Ford Foundation was simply an extension of government in the area of international cultural propaganda. The foundation had a record of close involvement in covert actions in Europe, working closely with Marshall Plan and CIA officials on specific projects”. This is graphically illustrated by the naming of Richard Bissell as President of the Foundation in 1952. In his two years in office Bissell met often with the head of the CIA, Allen Dulles, and other CIA officials in a “mutual search” for new ideas. In 1954 Bissell left Ford to become a special assistant to Allen Dulles in January 1954. Under Bissell, the Ford Foundation (FF) was the “vanguard of Cold War thinking”.
One of the FF first Cold War projects was the establishment of a publishing house, Inter-cultural Publications, and the publication of a magazine Perspectives in Europe in four languages. The FF purpose according to Bissell was not “so much to defeat the leftist intellectuals in dialectical combat (sic) as to lure them away from their positions”. The board of directors of the publishing house was completely dominated by cultural Cold Warriors. Given the strong leftist culture in Europe in the post-war period, Perspectives failed to attract readers and went bankrupt.
Another journal Der Monat funded by the Confidential Fund of the U.S. military and run by Melvin Lasky was taken over by the FF, to provide it with the appearance of independence.
In 1954 the new president of the FF was John McCloy. He epitomized imperial power. Prior to becoming president of the FF he had been Assistant Secretary of War, president of the World Bank, High Commissioner of occupied Germany, chairman of Rockefeller’s Chase Manhattan Bank, Wall Street attorney for the big seven oil companies and director of numerous corporations. As High Commissioner in Germany, McCloy had provided cover for scores of CIA agents.
Than CIA’s head Allen Dulles’ best bud, John McCloy,is shown here with David Rockefeller and Chase Manhattan executives after he successfully merged the Warburg’s Manhattan bank with Rockefeller’s Chase bank. A top Rockefeller leutenant, McCloy acted for decades on the family’s behalf as an adviser to presidents and dictators. He even shared a box with Hitler and Goering at the 1936 Olympics.
McCloy integrated the FF with CIA operations. He created an administrative unit within the FF specifically to deal with the CIA. McCloy headed a three person consultation committee with the CIA to facilitate the use of the FF for a cover and conduit of funds. With these structural linkages the FF was one of those organizations the CIA was able to mobilize for political warfare against the anti-imperialist and pro-communist left.
Official photo of Warren Commissioners that covered-up JFK Assassination. Allen Dulles(than head of the CIA) is seen second from left. To his right is John J. McCloy, lawyer and troubleshooter for both the Warburg and Rockefeller family. McCloy was appointed as a member of the Warren Commission, purely for the purposes of disguising Rockefeller’s crime.
Numerous CIA “fronts” received major FF grants. Numerous supposedly “independent” CIA sponsored cultural organizations, human rights groups, artists and intellectuals received CIA/FF grants. One of the biggest donations of the FF was to the CIA organized Congress for Cultural Freedom which received $7 million by the early 1960s. Numerous CIA operatives secured employment in the FF and continued close collaboration with the Agency.
McCloy (extreme left) with the rest of the gang, the other six hacks & fraudsters, of the Warren Commission, as they present the phony report to President Ford.
From its very origins there was a close structural relation and interchange of personnel at the highest levels between the CIA and the FF. This structural tie was based on the common imperial interests which they shared. The result of their collaboration was the proliferation of a number of journals and access to the mass media which pro-U.S. intellectuals used to launch vituperative polemics against Marxists and other anti-imperialists. The FF funding of these anti-Marxists organizations and intellectuals provided
A legal cover for their claims of being “independent” of government funding (CIA).
One prominent journalist, Andrew Kopkind, wrote of a deep sense of moral disillusionment with the private foundation-funded CIA cultural fronts. Kopkind wrote
“The distance between the rhetoric of the open society and the reality of control was greater than anyone thought. Everyone who went abroad for an American organization was, in one way or another, a witness to the theory that the world was torn between communism and democracy and anything in between was treason. The illusion of dissent was maintained: the CIA supported socialist cold warriors, fascist cold warriors, and black and white cold warriors. The catholicity and flexibility of the CIA operations were major advantages. But it was a sham pluralism and it was utterly corrupting”.
When a U.S. journalist Dwight Macdonald who was an editor of Encounter (a FF-CIA funded influential cultural journal) sent an article critical of U.S. culture and politics it was rejected by the editors, working closely with the CIA. In the field of painting and theater the CIA worked with the FF to promote abstract expressionism against any artistic expression with a social content, providing funds and contacts for highly publicized exhibits in Europe and favorable reviews by “sponsored” journalists. The interlocking directorate between the CIA, the Ford Foundation and the New York Museum of Modern Art lead to a lavish promotion of “individualistic” art remote from the people — and a vicious attack on European painters, writers and playwrights writing from a critical realist perspective. “Abstract Expressionism” whatever its artist’s intention became a weapon in the Cold War.
The Ford Foundation’s history of collaboration and interlock with the CIA in pursuit of U.S. world hegemony is now a well-documented fact. The remaining issue is whether that relationship continues into the new Millenium after the exposures of the 1960s? The FF made some superficial changes. They are more flexible in providing small grants to human rights groups and academic researchers who occasionally dissent from U.S. policy. They are not as likely to recruit CIA operatives to head the organization. More significantly they are likely to collaborate more openly with the U.S. government in its cultural and educational projects, particularly with the Agency of International Development.
The FF has in some ways refined their style of collaboration with Washington’s attempt to produce world cultural domination, but retained the substance of that policy. For example the FF is very selective in the funding of educational institutions. Like the IMF, the FF imposes conditions such as the “professionalization” of academic personnel and “raising standards.” In effect this translates into the promotion of social scientific work based on the assumptions, values and orientations of the U.S. empire; to have professionals de-linked from the class struggle and connected with pro-imperial U.S. academics and foundation functionaries supporting the neo-liberal model.
As in the 1950s and 60s the Ford Foundation today has developed a sophisticated strategy of funding human rights groups (HRGs) that appeal to Washington to change its policy while denouncing U.S. adversaries their “systematic” violations. The FF supports HRGs which equate massive state terror by the U.S. with individual excesses of anti-imperialist adversaries. The FF finances HRGs which do not participate in anti-globalization and anti-neoliberal mass actions and which defend the Ford Foundation as a legitimate and generous “non-governmental organization”.
In the current period of a major U.S. military-political offensive, Washington has posed the issue as “terrorism or democracy,” just as during the Cold War it posed the question as “Communism or Democracy.” In both instances the Empire recruited and funded “front organizations, intellectuals and journalists to attack its anti-imperialist adversaries and neutralize its democratic critics. The Ford Foundation is well situated to replay its role as collaborator to cover for the New Cultural Cold War.
CIA’s Trojan Horse reaches India
India had been sucked into the spiral of this Cultural Cold War since a long time. However with the US economy already bust and the EU falling like dominos; it is again the East where the West would anchor it’s sinking ship of so called Exceptionalism that fuels the Western Civilization. The game on the Indian side is very well crafted and carried out through CIA’s Trojan Horse which has entered into the heart of Indian Politics – Delhi.
A new political party pledging to sweep corruption from the Indian capital made surprising gains in state elections, grabbing a huge share of votes from the incumbent Congress party and leaving Delhi with no clear leader on Monday — and no party willing to form a coalition.
The fledgling Aam Aadmi Party, or Common Man’s Party, seized 28 of Delhi’s 70 assembly seats just nine months after its formation. The Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party took first place with 31, while Congress was left with a meagre eight, a stunning decline from its previous 43.
All three ruled out entering into a governing alliance, leaving the capital in a leadership lurch and raising the possibility of new elections.
CIA lays the “Foundation” of Indian Policymaking
The Ford Foundation, which completes six decades in India next year, provides a continuing flow of grants to institutions, think-tanks, civil society, and even farmer groups, to carry out research and advocacy work. The sums are not inconsequential—about $15 million (about Rs 70 crore) a year. And the recipients—320 grants, over the past four years—are the who’s who of civil society and advocacy groups in India.
Its representative, Steven Solnick, said the Foundation’s last installment to Kabir (an NGO run by Arvind Kejriwal and Manish Sisodia) was in 2010. “Our first grant to the NGO was of $1,72,000 in 2005 ; the second was in 2008 of $1,97,000,” he told Business Standard.
Steven Solnick – Ford Foundation’s representative in India
Kabir, run by Arvind Kejriwal and Manish Sisodia, key figures in AAP(Aam Aadmi Party), has received $400,000 from the Ford Foundation in the last three years.
Link for $197,000 – now removed by Ford. Refer screenshot of the same below.
In reply to an RTI query that questioned the funding and expenditure of Kabir, the organisation has disclosed that they have received funds from the Ford Foundation (Rs 86,61,742), PRIA (Rs 2,37,035), Manjunath Shanmugam Trust (Rs 3,70,000), Dutch Embassy (Rs 19,61,968), Association for India’s Development (Rs 15,00,000), India’s friends Association (Rs 7,86,500), United Nationals Development Programme (Rs12,52,742) while Rs 11,35,857 were collected from individual donations between 2007 to 2010.
Kejriwal Admits, His NGO Took Money from Ford Foundation 2 Years Back
Interestingly, a major part of the funding to an organisation that is prominent in the “War against corruption” has come from abroad and mainly from the United States. Apar from the UNDP, Ford Foundation and the India Friends Association are US-based organisations, while PRIA and Association for India’s Development are headquartered in Asia.
The foundation, on its part, makes no bones about its neo-liberal agenda, broadly pro-market, seeking accountability in governance, and promoting marginalised groups. It funds a small number of institutions, but chooses effectively. At a post-budget meeting two years back, it was noted that all the think-tanks represented (NCAER, NIPFP, ICRIER and the Centre for Policy Research) on the dais received grants from the foundation. Academicians and scholars from these think-tanks are regularly
consulted by the government on various policy issues.
On whether the views of these intellectuals actually get reflected in subsequent policies, Planning Commission deputy chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia declines to comment. “I don’t really have a view on it,” he says. He does, however, concede that India’s association with the foundation “is something that has been on for a long time”.
Moreover, three of core members ( Arvind Kejriwal, Kiran Bedi and Manish Sisodia) are also Magsaysay award winners which are endowed by the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller.
The Three Stooges
As far as the Magsaysay Award winners are concerned, this award is an American award for Asians established and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation ostensibly in memory of Ramon Magsaysay, the former President of Philippines.
According to well-placed sources in the U. S. Intelligence community opposed to the State Department’s policy toward the Philippines, $30 million in covert funds was supplied to the Philippine opposition to help finance its presidential campaign. This $30 million was laundered through Hong Kong, where the money was converted into the Philippine peso at the black market rate of 20 pesos to the dollar.
Philippine sources reported that the money had, been in part funneled into the CIA-controlled citizens election watch group, called Namfrel , the National Movement for a Free Election, which was originally created in 1953 in order to bring Ramon Magsaysay into power. Namfrel was central in the State Department’s policy of intervening into the Philippines election.
In 1957, the Rockefeller Foundation established the Ramon Magsaysay Prize for community leaders in Asia. It was named after Ramon Magsaysay, president of the Philippines, a crucial ally in the US campaign against Communism in Southeast Asia. In 2000, the Ford Foundation established the Ramon Magsaysay Emergent Leadership Award. The Magsaysay Award is considered a prestigious award among artists, activists and community workers in India. M.S. Subbulakshmi and Satyajit Ray won it, so did Jayaprakash Narayan and journalists, P. Sainath. In general, it has become a gentle arbiter of what kind of activism is “acceptable” and what is not. In reality the award is the living memory of the dictatorial president of Philippines known for the murder of thousands of communist guerrillas during the Huk Rebellion under US-planned anti-communist counter-insurgency operations. It explains the silence of the anti-corruption group against corporations and the private sector.
For more details read: CIA manipulation of 1953 elections
This perfectly fits in with a recent shift in the US policy of association with India, which is now focusing on building state-to-state partnerships by “engaging Indian state and local leaders” throughout the country on “topics of mutual interest”. Civil society groups and think-tanks are expected to play an important role in this. As Prof Anil Gupta of IIM-Ahmedabad observes, “Their influence is far beyond what is recognized, and not always benign.”
Should NGOs receiving grants from international agencies like the Ford Foundation and others be barred from participating in the shaping of public policy?
And are these civil society groups working as stooges of the West to execute an “American agenda” ?
These are the question the Aam Aadmi has to answer.
Not the copyrighted ones; but the real Aam Aadmi.
Report by Shelley Kasli.
ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION: PART 2
India & the Grand Blueprint for CIA’s Resurrection
GreatGameIndia / May 2, 2014
The following article was published in the March 2011 issue of The Week magazine, edited and with inputs from GreatGameIndia.
Copenhagen. December 7, 2009. United Nations Climate Change Conference. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Union Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh were hammering out India’s climate policy for the summit. Leader of the bloc of developing nations, India was not seeing eye-to-eye with the US. A worried White House quietly alerted CIA Director Leon E. Panetta to get cracking.
A former US Army intelligence officer and former chief of staff of president Bill Clinton, Panetta hustled top US scientists and spies to interpret all the intelligence gathered on India’s negotiating position and about individuals who were spearheading India’s climate change policy. Declassified CIA documents show that the agency had started gathering intelligence at least seven months before Copenhagen. Ahead of the summit, the CIA’s Office of the Chief Scientist ‘supported and funded’ an extensive study on “India -The impact of climate change to 2030: Geopolitical implications.”
India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (blue) and Indian Minister of Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh (behind) during a multilateral meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, Brazilian President Lula da Silva and South African President Jacob Zuma at the United Nations Climate Change Conference.
The study suggested that the US pre-negotiate with India about the climate change issues and find a common ground outside the public and international eye. The CIA also shared its massive archives of classified environmental data with scientists. WikiLeaks confirmed America’s covert campaign to target India at Copenhagen.
U.S. manipulated climate accord in Copenhagen: WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks cables reveal how US manipulated climate accord
Small nations bullied at Copenhagen: WikiLeaks
All these plans are part of CIA-2015, Panetta’s grand blueprint for the CIA’s resurrection. Panetta wants the agency to recruit, train and retain a diverse workforce for more innovative deployments abroad.
You could read the entire report online here: Global Trends 2015 – A Dialogue about the Future with Non-Governmental Experts
But India’s growing clout has persuaded the CIA to turn the spyglass on New Delhi.
The spooks in the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, are tracking virtually everything from Parliament proceedings to political parties to arms deals to internal security issues.
For example, WikiLeaks leaked the cables on the cash-for-votes issue in Tamil Nadu. The sources quoted in the cable were highly-placed – Karti Chidambaram, son of Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram, and M. Patturajan, former mayor of Madurai and right-hand man of Union Fertilisers Minister M.K. Alagiri.
WikiLeaks: Indian politicians ‘bought votes with cash tucked inside newspapers’
Wikileaks Cable : 206688: Cash for votes in South India
A senior Indian intelligence officer who has been closely watching CIA-2015 confirmed the agency’s unprecedented interest in India. He said some of the CIA’s best men are secretly travelling through different states and are setting up networks to watch political developments and separatist movements. These networks will seek information about India’s nuclear arsenal and military modernisation. They will also keep their eyes peeled for terrorists who might prove dangerous to the US. Based on all this information, Langley will predict India’s strategy viz-a-viz Pakistan and China.
“The CIA is expanding its operations in India. The CIA is sending Indian-origin and south Asian-origin officers to India so that they can merge better,” said Jayadeva Ranade, former additional secretary, Research & Analysis Wing.
“The basic approach [of the CIA] will be to befriend senior bureaucrats, senior military officials, politicians to find what our intentions are and what we are planning to do.” An intelligence field operative with 35 years experience, Ranade also did a stint in Washington.
The home ministry confirmed that more than 3,500 Americans are illegally overstaying in India since 2006.
Neither the ministry nor the security agencies know their whereabouts. Home ministry spokesman, Onkar Kedia told THE WEEK that his office did not have details about how many illegal aliens from the US had been arrested and deported.
A senior serving intelligence officer said that the ‘missing Americans’ could be part of a ‘deep penetration itinerary’. “For example, an undercover CIA agent might be tasked to locate himself for a specific period somewhere near Mumbai or Kochi to collect some information about the movement of warships,” said the official. “Once the job is done, the agent is withdrawn.
There are instances of cooperation, too. In 1965, a covert CIA-Intelligence Bureau mission placed nuclear-powered sensors on Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot peaks to monitor China’s nuclear facilities. Captain M.S. Kohli of the Indian Navy was part of the team, thanks to his formidable mountaineering skills. He said he was never approached by the CIA after the joint mission.
Kohli said that even in the mid-sixties, the CIA was capable of deploying a team quickly and inconspicuously. “And they [CIA operatives] are unremarkable in their daily activities, such as walking to buy a newspaper in a drizzle” said Kohli. “They know their organisation is always around them with a support and rescue plan.”
But, of course, there are instances when the CIA could not protect its own. The Memorial Wall at Langley, flanked by the CIA flag and the US flag, has 102 stars in memory of slain operatives. The CIA’s Book of Honor, a ‘black book bound with Moroccan goatskin’, lists the years of death and names of the operatives. But 40 stars are unnamed. Even the dead keep their secrets.
As the Americans pay dearly for collecting classified information, they use it primarily to defend their interests. For example, within 48 hours of the 26/11 attacks, then CIA director Michael V. Hayden contacted Hussain Haqqani, the Pakistani ambassador to the US, to possibly update him regarding information from India. The next day Hayden summoned ISI chief Lt-General Ahmed Shuja Pasha for a briefing.
After these two meetings, Washington started arm-twisting New Delhi to share information with Islamabad. According to a cable leaked by WikiLeaks (185722: confidential), New Delhi refused to share information with Islamabad. Washington continued arm-twisting and soon the US embassy in Delhi cabled Washington that India had agreed to share ‘some restricted information’ with Pakistan. THE CIA fixed a meeting between top intelligence officials of India and Pakistan on 26/11 in the US on July 6, 2009. It is not known for certain if the meeting was held.
The CIA has also been snooping about India’s nuclear and military facilities. India regularly figures in the CIA’s annual report on ballistic missile threats. The CIA had detected a shipment of beryllium bound for India from West Germany. As beryllium shells are used to house plutonium cores of thermonuclear devices, it was quite clear as to what India was up to.
Chief of the Army Staff General V.K. Singh told THE WEEK that adequate safety measures were taken in light of the increased activity of the western intelligence agencies. A senior Army officer said that retired officers who work for foreign defence and security companies were being closely watched as part of a counter-intelligence programme.
But the focus of the CIA is not limited to nuclear and military assets. Two chromite mines in Orissa and Karnataka and a pharmaceutical factory in Gujarat were listed among critical global infrastructure sites whose loss could ‘critically impact’ the public health or security of the US. The factory manufactures chemotherapy drugs for a US firm; the list was compiled by the US State Department. Surprisingly, India’s output is only 18 per cent of the world’s annual chromite production.
The CIA has also dedicated resources in India to gather and analyse data that is freely available, like research articles, religious books and web sites. As part of this programme, the CIA allegedly commissioned a 20-state survey on Indian Muslims. Reportedly, US-based Princeton Survey Research Associates International were the main contractors. Allegedly, they sub-contracted it to TNS, a Delhi-based market research agency.
In Kerala’s capital of Thiruvananthapuram, TNS staff visited Karimadom colony, a predominantly Muslim area. The questionnaire was bizarre: Do you consider yourselves Indians first or Muslims first? Your views on imposing Islamic law in India? Do you like Osama bin Laden? Will you give him refuge if he comes to Kerala? Police nabbed four TNS staff after Karimadom residents complained.
The Kerala Muslim Jamaat Council (KMJC), the apex body of mahallu (parish) committees in southern Kerala, took strong exception to the survey. KMJC general secretary A. Pookunj said: “Many people speak of a growing radicalisation among Kerala Muslims. But how can a foreign agency come and ask us whether we will give shelter to Osama? What do we have to do with Osama? I wonder why the state has not taken any action against them [surveyors].” TNS representative Pradeep Saxena declined to comment on the issue as it is sub judice.
Lisa Curtis, a former CIA analyst and diplomat, said that while the US shares a strategic partnership with India, the CIA’s covert operations in India have fuelled unease and mistrust within Indian intelligence agencies. Said Curtis: “The defection of a senior Indian intelligence official to the US in 2004 and revelations of unauthorised meetings between a senior Indian intelligence official and an American intelligence official in New Delhi in 1997 have raised red flags in India. [There is] concern that the US will exploit these links for its own purposes.” Curtis was referring to the defection of Rabinder Singh, joint director of RAW.
In early 1980s, K.V. Unnikrishnan, a 1962 batch IPS officer, who was posted at R&AW station in Colombo was honeytrapped by CIA. Between 1985–87 when he was deputed as the station chief at Chennai, co-ordinating Sri Lanka operations, he gave away information to his handler on training and arming Tamil groups including LTTE and the Indian government’s negotiating positions on the peace accord with Sri Lanka. He was caught by IB counter-intelligence in 1987, spent a year in Tihar jail and was dismissed from IPS cadre.
Unnikrishnan’s betrayal was well before Rajiv Gandhi assassination in 1991. He was led into a honey trap when he was posted in Colombo in the early 1980s. But his handlers, in typical intelligence operations protocol, waited until he was important for them. They then revived contact when he was put in charge of LTTE operations in Chennai in 1985-86.
The bare essentials of this honey-pot episode was provided in our research article Sex for Secrets : RAW Agent Honey-trapped by CIA before Rajiv Gandhi Assassination.
For all the bonhomie between agencies, mention the name Omar Sheikh and everyone clams up and you will be shown the door. On January 22, 2002, two motorcycle-borne terrorists attacked the American Centre in Kolkata, a favourite base of the CIA. The attack was masterminded by Omar Sheikh, a UK-born militant of Pakistani descent, who had links to al Qaeda. He was one of the militants released in 1999 to save the lives of the passengers on board the hijacked IC-814 flight.
But no one really knows who Omar Sheikh is. And those in the know will not speak. An FIR, No 658/94, at Connaught Place police station is still open and he is now is prison in Pakistan. In his memoirs, former Pakistan president Pervez Musharraf called him an MI6 agent. Many in Afghanistan believe Omar was a CIA agent.
A tribal leader in Kandahar told THE WEEK that Omar visited Kandahar and Paktia provinces in mid-1990s where Kashmiris, Afghans and Arabs were trained together by the ISI. “We always believed that he is close to the CIA,” said the tribal leader. The CIA and the FBI nabbed Fahim Ansari, another suspect in the Kolkata attack, from Dubai. Ansari was eventually handed over to India, but the agency stills remains mum on Omar.
Every relationship has its ups and downs. If India has benefited from its partnership with the CIA (or have we), what are we complaining about? M.K. Dhar, former joint director, Intelligence Bureau, puts it crisply: “The CIA has legitimate interests in India. But our problem with the CIA has been that it has targeted the sensitive segments of Indian panorama.”
He recalled how the CIA had developed a mole inside Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao’s office in 1993.
“The plot was exposed when we noticed a peon from the PMO frequently visiting a photostat shop in Khan Market in Delhi. He was smuggling files from the PMO.” The peon was arrested and his American handler was asked to leave the country. The court closed the case last year.
Many within India’s intelligence establishment say that the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan has prompted the CIA to look closely at India. In 2010, a suicide bomber killed eight CIA officers in Khost, eastern Afghanistan. The worsening situation is making it difficult for the agency to freely move around and meet its agents in Pakistan and Afghanistan. So, New Delhi could be the new debriefing centre.
Robert Grenier insists that the CIA’s covert operations are subject to layers of oversight. He said that before an agency paramilitary team can be launched, the President must sign an intelligence finding that broadly outlines the operation to be performed. “That finding, along with a more detailed description of the mission, is sent to the congressional intelligence committees. If they object to an operation, they can cut off its funds the next time the agency’s budget comes up,” said Robert Grenier. After approving a covert operation, President Obama leaves the details of when and how to Leon Panetta. After all, according to the US Constitution, he is the real boss of the agency. In theory, the CIA Director’s mission is to tell the president the truth, so as to provide the president with a basis for making important decisions.
Leon Panetta, amiable and widely respected within the Obama administration, who choose India as his first foreign destination after he took over as the director of the CIA in 2009, knows that India is a strategic ally, a relationship President Obama cherishes. That makes his job more challenging to confirm his country’s hopes and fears about an emerging and in many ways an unpredictable power like India. “In the spying business you don’t operative just to harm other. You want to confirm and establishment things to help your political establishment to make better decisions,” explain Jayadeva Ranade, as he ran his hand across his hair. “But one thing is clear if the President tells the CIA to take care of a mission or of a country. They wouldn’t care less about the consequences.
CIA’s Trojan Horse reaches India
India had been sucked into the spiral of this Cultural Cold War since a long time. However with the US economy already bust and the EU falling like dominos; it is again the East where the West would anchor it’s sinking ship of so called Exceptionalismthat fuels the Western Civilization. The game on the Indian side is very well crafted and carried out through CIA’s Trojan Horse which has entered into the heart of Indian Politics – Delhi.
(March 27 2011, THE WEEK)
The Müllerian Aryan Invasion–or Romilian Aryan Migration–never happened – Anand Ranganathan
“The verdict of population genetics is clear, and profound, as pointed out subsequently by the lead author of the Nature study Dr Lalji Singh himself: ‘There is no genetic evidence that Indo-Aryans invaded or migrated to India. It is high time we re-write India’s prehistory based on scientific evidence.’” – Anand Ranganathan
If science proceeds funeral by funeral, history takes the route of wildfires. And the largest wildfire of them all, one that has consumed us for the better part of a century, is the debate surrounding our roots. Who are we, where did we come from; is this land ours or are we mercenaries? While both science and history struggle to discover answers to these questions, the difference lies in the timescale. RNA World in one case, Aryan World the other.
For the victors a quill to write history with, for the vanquished the burden to peddle it. Nations weaken not because of their past but rather by how they are taught it. For more than a century Müller-putras have sold to us a theory that tries to explain who we are. It goes like this: Around 3,500 years ago, a horde of light-skinned warriors called Aryans invaded the upper reaches of Hindoostan only to percolate slowly to the badlands where they accosted the dark-skinned Dravidians. This so-called Aryan Invasion Theory, or AIT, has echoed forever and a day beyond in our history classrooms and we, the children of a coerced conscience, have lapped it up. There is an opinion – not unfounded – that AIT is nothing but magic realism, a coloniser’s fantasy that hymns n’ high culture came galloping down from the civilised world to the barbaric. The natives had to be shown their place. Run along now!
To her credit, the eminent historian Romila Thapar was among a chosen few to have denounced AIT. “Not only did the invasion not happen, the use of the word Aryan itself is erroneous.” The Aryans were a linguistically similar collection of people and not a race, wrote Prof Thapar. “They didn’t invade India, they migrated to it.”
Prof Thapar may not believe in the Aryan Invasion Theory – preferring the Aryan Migration option instead – but she has done little to oppose it, a fact that emerged from the 2005 California state schools controversy when there were found as many as 49 textbook mentions of the word “Aryan”. These included claims such as: “Around 1500 BCE, invaders called Aryans conquered northern India”…“Some historians credit the Aryans with bringing Hinduism to India.”…“The Aryans created a caste system”…“Aryan technology improved farming in India”. When some Hindu groups protested, Prof Thapar – having earlier never objected to the inclusion of such references – bitterly opposed changes to the curriculum. “We should stick to teaching the facts,” she said.
True, Prof Thapar does not believe in the Aryan Invasion – she has said so publicly. But did she ever believe in it only to adopt later the diluted version? There exists no evidence of this – in her books or in transcripts of her lectures. To be sure, the invasion-migration question is a moot one. Millennia-old human history makes us realise, time and again, that migrations are seldom non-threatening, especially when they happen across populated continents. As Prof Thapar admits in her book Early India: “Some settlements in the north-west and Punjab might have been subjected to raids and skirmishes [by the Aryans], such as are described in the Rig Veda, or for which there appears to be occasional evidence at some site, for example Kot Diji.”
Sure, invasions can be diluted. What is malignant one day can turn benign the next. Here is Prof Thapar on India’s recent past: “I do not see the medieval period as one where the Muslims are the conquerors. It was a period of creation of communities. Muslims came in various ways. They were traders, they were pastoralists, they were conquerors, they were missionaries, and they created different kinds of communities all over the subcontinent…. The trauma of Mahmud of Ghazni’s raid on Somnath was never experienced at the time or even for centuries thereafter. This trauma has been appropriated from the reading of the British version of this event.”
There are historians who disagree with Prof Thapar’s diluted view of Islamic invasions, and they cite the same sources as she does – Chachnama or Rihla – sources that either describe the invasions or their immediate aftermath. Many also point out – through their writings on the annihilation of Vijayanagara, academic or narrative – that the assimilation of Islam in south India was hardly the “smooth process” Prof Thapar claims it to be.
History is not Homeopathy – it does not leave an imprint when diluted, it simply disappears. Ironically, Prof Thapar by her own admission is practicing an art that can be doubted at every step. “Even archaeological artefacts are as much subject to interpretation as textual facts,” she says. She is not alone. The acclaimed historian Ilan Pappé told BBC recently: “Sure, the History I write is influenced by my agenda and ideology, but so what!”
What, then, is to be done? Are we to reduce History to dining-table fights, at the returning mercy of wildfires – douse one, get ready for the next? Perhaps.
Perhaps not, with a little help from science. Indian historians may think otherwise but Population Genetics, a discipline still in its infancy has made immense contribution towards corroborating historical details and is as indispensable today as an archaeologist’s coco-bristled hand brush. At its base it is the study of haplogroups, a term meant to indicate a common ancestor traceable because of identical mutations in lineage DNA. These mutations, called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs, accumulate through the passage of time and act as “markers” to identify a specific haplotype. To make sense out of SNPs, one ideally needs a region of genome that doesn’t undergo recombination. Mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA, is one such region as is also the Y chromosome, passed down from father to son. Mitochondrial DNA does not recombine, only gathers mutations along the evolutionary timeline. Remarkably, the human egg is genetically programmed to tag any incoming sperm mitochondria with a “death-tag” protein called ubiquitin, thereby assuring its destruction. All mitochondria, therefore, are inherited exclusively from the mother’s side; the further away in time they are the more SNP mutational differences there will be. Indeed, using a calibrated molecular clock, i.e. a verifiable tool to calculate the mutational rate, one can estimate the age of divergence or coalescence (merging). To understand how population genetics has helped solve the Aryan question it is worth recounting some of its monumental discoveries beginning with, well, the beginning.
Africa is where Man began – and Woman, too, of course. No surprise, then, that both Adam and Eve, our “most recent common ancestors”, are African. Information gained from sequencing whole genomes of 69 males from nine populations has led scientists to estimate Adam’s age to be between 120,000 and 156,000 years. For Eve it is 99,000 to 148,000 years. And even though the Adams were a happy lot, it wasn’t long before curiosity got the better of them. Migrations started in earnest, first briefly to Israel (90,000 years ago) and then in a major way 5000 years later to other parts of the world including India (66,000 years ago) and, following the southern route, Australia some 3000 years later. Population genetics has helped us understand the nature and timescale of these migrations, from North America to Singapore to Gujarat, besides solving some long-standing mysteries. For example, we now know that Roma gypsies migrated to central Europe exclusively from Punjab.
To return now to the question of the troublesome Aryans, Prof Thapar believes Aryan Migration happened around the time of the Rig Veda that, she concurs, resembles the Iranian sacred textAvesta – dated 1400 BC. The Iranians split into two groups one of which – the Indo-Aryans – migrated eastwards and reached India. Upon reaching India they penned the Rig Veda, a facsimile of Avesta except for a bizarre reversal of subject matter – the Avesta Gods became Rig Veda demons and vice-versa. The migration of peoples was also accompanied by migration of names and places. “The Harahvati becomes Sarasvati, quite a distance away from Afghanistan to Punjab. The Harayu becomes Sarayu from Afghanistan to UP.”
In her book, Early India, Prof Thapar accepts the theory that “Indo-Aryan speakers gradually migrated from Indo-Iranian borderlands and Afghanistan to northern India where they introduced the language. The migrations were generally not disruptive of settlements and cultures [no citation provided]”…“[The immigrants] were dissident groups that had broken away from the speakers of Old Iranian, whose language and ideas came to be encapsulated in theAvesta.”
Clearly, Prof Thapar is of the view that the migration happened after Avesta, i.e. around 1400 BC or 3,500 years ago. Unfortunately for her, science knows otherwise.
In a remarkable 2009 study published in the journal Nature, scientists were able to show that Indians can lay a worthy claim to two ancestral groups – Ancestral North Indians, ANI, and Ancestral South Indians, ASI. The ANI, Singh and co-workers discovered, were genetically close to Central Europeans or Eurasians. Interestingly, the Andaman tribe Onge were found to possess no ANI ancestry of any kind. In fact, Singh and co-workers were the first to study the origin of the Andaman and Nicobar people. The Onge, they revealed, have evolved quite independently from other human populations, untouched since their ancestors migrated from Africa 50-70,000 years ago. These findings have since been corroborated by several research groups worldwide. ANI indeed possesses a higher component of European ancestry compared to ASI even as the two groups share common genetic variants. nother extended study, that analysed as many as 1.4 million ANI and 1.6 million ASI SNPs, also reached the same conclusion, of a gene-flow from Europe to north India.
But it was the publication in 2011 of a path-breaking study that ultimately sealed the fate of the Aryan Invasion or Migration theory. Analysing 600,000 SNPs from as many as 30 ethnic groups – thereby extending the 2009 Nature ANI study through the inclusion of more European samples – Toomas Kivisild and co-workers discovered that both components of Indian ancestry, ANI and ASI, predate the Aryan Migration event by at least 9000 years. This was because the so-called k5 component, that bestows ancestry to South Asians, was found to contain no regional diversity differences; its spread across the Indian subcontinent must have happened well before 12,500 years ago (the detection limit) and not through a recent gene-flow event. In 2013 Singh and co-workers extended the Kivisild study with some acute observations, namely that the ANI and ASI populations mixed robustly between 1900 to 4200 years ago and that these two groups didn’t mix either before or after this window. The authors, by analysing genomes of 571 individuals representing 73 ethno-linguistic groups, also ruled out Eurasian gene flow during this time period, concurring with the finding of another study that such an event could not have happened before 12,500 years. Moreover, argued the scientists, 3500 years ago India was a already a densely populated region with well-established agricultural practices and therefore the Eurasian migration would have had to be immense in order to explain the fact that half the Indian population is derived from ANI. The Aryan Migration event of 1500 BCE has also been questioned based on an authoritative haplogroup U linkage study wherein scientists found an extensive and deep late-Pleistocene link between Indians and Europeans, suggesting a coalescence near the time when Asia was initially being peopled. The migration that led to the Indo-Eurasian stock, according to these scientists, happened not 3,500 years ago but rather 12,500 years or earlier. Another study, this time involving Y-DNA haplotyping, rules out substantial gene-flow from Europe to Asia at least since the mid-Holocene period, i.e. the last 6,500 years. It has also been shown that the gateway to the subcontinent, the Hindu Kush – where the earliest archaeological evidence of human remains dates back to 26,500 years before the Rig Veda – was a confluence of gene-flows in the early Neolithic period as opposed to an indigenous population.
There is one other way to corroborate that Eurasian migration happened much before the time-point vouched for by AMT proponents – skin colour. It has long been known that a single mutation, rs1426654, in the human pigmentation gene SLC24A5 accounts for the lighter skin tone of Europeans. A year ago, scientists discovered that an allele of the rs1426654 mutation was shared among many South Asian and Western Eurasian populations. The coalescence was calculated to be 22000-28000 years ago, with the frequency of occurrence of this mutation – called the allele frequency – found to be significantly higher in the ANI compared to the ASI.
The verdict of population genetics is clear, and profound, as pointed out subsequently by the lead author of the Nature study Dr Lalji Singh himself: “There is no genetic evidence that Indo-Aryans invaded or migrated to India. It is high time we re-write India’s prehistory based on scientific evidence.”
Prof Thapar, though, is dismissive of the overwhelming scientific evidence that negates the Aryan Migration event. “The DNA results from various sources,” she says, “have been so confused and contradictory that it is difficult for me to accept what any of them say. None of them are social historians nor do they consult historians and sociologists before they make their categories, hence the confusion.”
The force of science is brute yet unassuming. Yes, Galileo had to apologise but he must have done so with a smirk. Popular opinion matters little when the thrill of eureka has already been consumed and relished by the discoverer. One learns to move on. In the 1950s, two theories that explained to us the universe – the Steady State and the Big Bang – garnered equal wrestling time. But then over the ensuing decades it was the Big Bang that came through unscathed, with the result that only those who had a hand in proposing the Steady State now believe in it.
Time waits for no one, least of all junked theories. Scientists, having pointed out that the Müllerian Aryan Invasion – or the Romilian Aryan Migration – never happened, have returned to their garages. Historians are still at the dining table. C’est la vie. – Newslaundry – 11 August 2014
» Anand Ranganathan read Chemistry at St. Stephen’s, Delhi, and thereafter went to Cambridge for his BA in Natural Sciences. He stayed on at Cambridge for his PhD and post-doctoral studies. After returning to India, he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology at Delhi, where at present he is researching tuberculosis and dengue, among other things. He can be contacted at email@example.com and on Twitter @ARangarajan1972
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